The paper "Management of Communication" is a perfect example of a management assignment. The three environmental cues that influence ones expectation for communication are; scene, setting and contextual expectations of individuals. Environmental cues influence directly or indirectly the behavior and language expectations among participants. For example, in a wedding context, a series of events influence its effectiveness, timing and presentation of rings, cakes and toasts. Although the setting is formal it has a number of informal events intertwined. The scene and setting create a stimulus in which an individual can have high or low expectations. A business communicator has two responsibilities to the audience; being ethical and being prepared.
When the communicator is prepared, they get organized, clear, concise and punctual. Also, the ethical communication is egalitarian, respectful and trustworthy to their audience. On the other hand, the audiences have the responsibility of giving total attention to the speaker. A public speaker recognizes interpersonal and intrapersonal communication and uses engagement strategies to focus on the message. A group normally defers to the speaker in public speaking situations. I believe that thought influences the use of language.
The thought process, as seen from individuals, is the reference point for the object or subject when described in words. For example, a ‘ Jaguar’ Land Rover is a reference for a vehicle but with derived meaning for a fierce and powerful carnivorous animal from the jungles of the Amazon basin. When the word ‘ Jaguar’ is spoken it symbolizes the object of which the thought of fierceness and power immediately sets in. Criticism and compliments during communication interactions affect one's sense of self. Oral and written communication has an inclination on expressions and personality and may be shaped by experiences.
For example, Jim can change his self-concept if told that he cannot speak fluently or communicate well in English. Communicating well to the public starts with being able to communicate to oneself. Language and communication can dispel fears and doubts and instill hopes and expectations to individuals. This is possible through mentorship, business communication courses and positive experiences that result in positive change. In the Readers Digest (2010, March), Heffernan describes ‘ One woman who built $400 million trucking business’ www. rd. com.
The headline is a good attention statement that is inspirational. The introduction part shows the humble beginning of the entrepreneur and her objectives in life. The body is a description of her efforts, failures and successes and notes that the entrepreneur was able to achieve her original objective of employing many Native Americans who were jobless and poor. The conclusion has a sense of closure and highlights that determination is key in achieving one’ s goals in life. The residual message is that success comes to those seeking it despite their gender and ethnicity. Doublespeak is one of the barriers to effective communication and should not be encouraged.
It seeks to dilute or divert the meaning of the scene or activity. For example, the ongoing military intervention in Syria and Iraq talks of military ‘ targets’ to the opposition and Islamic State operatives. Use of doublespeak obscures the meaning of ‘ target’ as residential buildings with humans, mainly children and women, inside. The global audience will fail to raise attention to the intervention due to a change in meaning and perception. Signposts are used by the speaker to indicate the points being made or signal change.
Common signposts are; for example, in conclusion, and to illustrate. The audience once tired of a long speech will be relieved when they hear ‘ as I conclude’ , meaning that the speech is coming to an end. For instance, an analyzing of malnutrition in Indian children under five years uses a number of signposts (Sahu, et al. , 2015). The authors use ‘ On the other hand’ to show that few studies have attempted to study obesity in the same population. This shows that the authors intended to divert attention from the theme of malnutrition a little bit. While language can help one to communicate, jargons may create misunderstanding or miscommunication.
Reuters News carried an article in 2014 about air traffic failure in the US, and used jargons like ‘ ERAM systems’ , ‘ GPS’ and ‘ altitude discrepancy’ . These authors did not explain the former but made an attempt to explain GPS as Global Positioning system for location search while ERAM is En Route Automation Modernization. I think they could have explained further their application to the layman to help them understand their meaning. Self-concept plays a huge role in communication, both spoken and written.
In writing, a person with healthy self-image and self-esteem will use positive messages and encouraging words. For example, a job applicant with good self-esteem will write in her diary that ‘ I failed the interview because I was not prepared if I prepare well next time I will be the next accountant in Lyods Bank’ . This shows that self-concept can influence an individual to go with certain words can give hope, encouragement, patience and higher expectations. The field of psychology provides that when people are encouraged, their potential and the way they see oneself is influenced.
In the psychology experiment, it is argued that public school teachers who randomly picked students and encouraged them found that they excelled. Indeed, non-verbal and verbal encouragement unconsciously communicates special messages to the students to perform better. Defined as the ‘ Pygmalion effect’ , a strong belief in an individual that they can meet or fail in their expectations is base on appropriate encouragement and attention. Perception is the mental roadmap of strategies, beliefs, experiences and values.
Previous experiences and new expectations limit one's perception of reality at that moment. The case identifies assumptions and a set of expectations as a guide in achieving anything different from the past. It is possible to apply or predict one's mental template to think of the future or what might happen. For example, an employee called to meet the manager at his office may run a number of possible reasons for the meeting. These expectations will affect the perceptions of the employee.
Heffernan, M. (2010, March 15) How One Woman Built a $400 million trucking business. Readers Digest. http://www.rd.com/advice/how-one-woman-built-a-400-million-trucking-business/.
Sahu, S.S., Kumar, S.G., Premarajan, K.C., Sarkar, S., Roy, G. & Nitin, J. (2015). Malnutrition among under-five children in India and strategies for control. Journal of Natural Sciences and Biological Medicine, 6(1): 18-23.
The Independent (2015, October 7). Tory Party Conference: David Cameron’s Speech. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/tory-party-conference-2015-david-camerons-speech-in-full-a6684656.html.