The paper “ Historical Development of Management and Management Theories” is a pathetic example of a literature review on management. The field of management emanated from the industrial revolution which brought about two changes; the substitution of machine power with human power and the need for formal management in large organizations. Management as a discipline relates to and is affected by a number of disciplines (Handy 1996) such as Economics- the allocation and distribution of scarce resources, Political Science- How politics affects individuals and groups, Philosophy- the study of the nature of things, Psychology- measures, explains and seeks to change human behavior and Sociology- the study of social problems.
Although the managerial practice has been around for long, it was not until the late nineteenth and twentieth century that conclusive studies were made in relation to professional management and its role in organizational success (Roth 1999). Witzel (2004) notes that studies of management began with the scientific management theory which was succeeded by the 'general administrative' theory. It was succeeded by the human relations theory and then the systems approach and finally the contingency approach. Scientific Management TheoryFredrick W.
TaylorThis was the first management theory of the 20th century developed by Taylor. While working at a steel company as one of the workers, he noted that some of the workers were intentionally slow but at the end of the day, they received the same amount of wages as others who worked more. Taylor developed a way of quantifying work and getting paid according to how much work was done regardless of the time spent. (Cole, 2004) This theory viewed humans as economic animals classified by their production levels.
Every worker was judged individually and not as a group. Taylor believed that the reason people worked was to get money. Offering more money for more work will ensure productivity increases considerably. The manager’ s role in this theory is to give instructions while that of the worker is to follow instructions and get paid on how much of the instructions are followed. The only motivation offered is money (Witzel, 2004).
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Dale, E. (1969) Management: Theory and practice, Rex Bookstore, Florida.
David, B. &Andrzej H. (1999) Organizational Behavior: An introductory text. Routledge Publishing, California.
Drucker, P.F. (2006) The Practice of Management, Collins Publishers, U.S.A.
Friedman, P.F. (2000) Dictionary of Business Terms. Barron Educational Publishers, U.S.A.
Handy, C. (1996) Gods of Management: The changing work of organizations. Oxford University Press, Britain.
Morgen, W. (2003) Fifty key Figures in Management, Routledge Publishers, UK.
Mullins, J.L. (2007) Management and Organizational Behavior, 8th Ed. Pitman Publishing, U.S.A.
Peter F. D. (1993) Management: tasks, responsibilities and practices, Harper Business, Kansas.
Roth, W. (1999) The Roots and Future of Management Theory: A systems perspective. St. Lucie Press, Montenegero.
Sheldrake, J. (2003) Management Theory, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Witzel M. (2004) Management: The basics, Routledge Publishers, UK.