Essays on Present Utilisation of Hofstedes Contribution by Organisations Coursework

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The paper "Present Utilisation of Hofstede’ s Contribution by Organisations " is a great example of management coursework.   Hofstede work in the 1980s ‘ titled cultural consequence’ that was derived on pre-existing employee attitude survey of IBM employees in 1967 and 1973 gave birth to the concept known as a national culture that has been widely utilised in management domain (McSweeney, 2002, p. 90). The study identified principal parameters that define a nation’ s culture such as power distance; individualism vs. collectivism; masculinity vs. femininity; assertiveness & competitiveness vs. modesty & caring (Minkov & Hofstede, 2011, p. 12).

The principal contribution of his work to management falls on the realisation that cultures can be a great source of conflict, disaster and nuisance thereby undermining synergy and ultimately organisational performance. The rationale for such observe is premised on the fact that Schemas, belief and stereotypes that individuals adhere to are highly shaped by their national culture (Dickson et al. , 2003, p. 730). Thus, managers should be aware of these trends, especially those managing multicultural and multinational companies so as to effectively undertake human relations process effectively. Utilising the case example of Geert Hofstede as one of the management ‘ thinker’ , the ultimate premise of this discourse is to assess and outline his contribution to the development of management thought.

To answer this thesis statement, the paper dissects four critical concerns. The first premise of the paper is to establish the management function or the topic that Geert Hofsteed works is related to. Secondly, the paper seeks to establish the theoretical contribution of Geert Hofsteed. Additionally, the expose seeks to determine how his study adds or link to other theoretical propositions of management.

Finally, the paper aims at finding out the extent to which businesses presently utilises Geert Hofstede work. 2.0 Theoretical Contribution The contributory role of the study was the delineation of national cultures into five categories. Out of the study, Hofstede (1984, p. 390) established that power distance relates to how those individuals who are less powerful embraces inequality and deem it as normal. For the context of individualism and collectivism, he opines that those who are individualistic display tendencies of being concerned with their immediate families only while collectivists are concerned with the larger community.

According to Hofstede (2001, p. 235), individualistic tendencies are more common in developed nations as compared to developing ones. On the other hand, masculinity vs. femininity is premised on how men and women are gendered and cultured. In this regard feminism, the gender role is blurred while in masculinity gender roles are clearly defined. Finally, uncertainty avoidance is premised on the risk-taking capability of individuals within a given community. This refers to how people are socially confined to be nervous especially in relation to unpredictable outcomes (Hofstede, 1984, p. 390). 3.0 The Topic that Geert Hofsteed Work is related to The Hofstede’ s work is related to cross-cultural leadership topic.

Culture is rooted in shared beliefs and how individuals are socialised or constrained to behave in a certain manner. Such behaviours are likely to be exhibited in the organisations by individuals and thus impacting on organisational culture (Kochan, et al, 2003, p. 4). Cross-cultural leadership is anchored on the ability to take cognisance and into consideration multicultural perspectives (Rentsch, Mot & Abbe, 2009, p. 1). Johnson, Lenartowicz & Apud (2006, p. 530) notes that being competent in cross-cultural issues, one is able to work with diverse cultures in a different setting.

Thus, the whole concept is premised on an appreciation that people differ and hence, it is the onus of managers to take into considerations such various for maximum organisational performance by finding appropriate leadership style effective for that given cultural context.

References

Dickson, M. W., Den Hartog, D & Mitchelson, J 2003, Research on leadership in a cross-cultural context: Making progress, and raising new questions, The leadership quarterly, vol. 14, no. 6, p. 729-768.

Gellerstam, M & Wiesner, J 2011, The impact of guānxì in Chinese business-A study of Swedish SMEs in Beijing, New York.

Hofstede, G 2001, Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions and Organisations across Nations, Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.

Hofstede, G 1984, The Cultural Relativity of the Quality of Life Concept, The Academy of Management Review, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 389-398.

Johnson, J. P., Lenartowicz, T & Apud, S (2006, Cross-Cultural Competence in International Business: Toward a Definition and a Model, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 37, p. 525-543.

Kumarasinghe, S & Hoshino, Y 2009, Entry Mode Strategies and Performance of Japanese MNCs in Australia and New Zealand: the Role of Japanese Employees, Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 21-67.

McSweeney, B 2002, Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith-a failure of analysis, Human relations, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 89-118.

Minkov, M & Hofstede, G 2011, Cross Cultural Management: The Evolution of Hofstede’s Doctrine, An International Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 10-20.

Mockaitis, I 2005, A cross-cultural study of leadership attitudes in three Baltic Sea Region countries, International Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 44-63.

Mulok, D & Ainuddin, R 2010, Foreign Entry Mode, Cultural Distance and Subsidiary Performance of Malaysian Mnes, International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 26-31.

Rentsch, J.R., Mot, I & Abbe, A 2009, Identifying the core content and structure of a schema for cultural understanding. (Technical Report 1256). Arlington, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioural and Social Sciences.

Wu, J 2008, An Analysis of Business Challenges Faced by Foreign Multinationals Operating the Chinese Market, International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 3, no. 12, p. 169-174.

Youssef, K 2007, An analysis of entry mode strategies and international performance: learning from Japanese investment experience in Australia and Europe, London, Springer.

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