The paper 'Management and Organizational Behavior' is a good example of a Management Essay. As markets all over the world become more international and the rates of competition progressively become aggressive, and at the same time as the changes in technology continuously specify competitive advantage, the theories, as well as the styles of management, have changed immensely (Barge and Oliver, 2003). Theories have developed making management to be well-matched with the current international conditions. The contemporary theory of management helps to explain how quick changes in the nature of today’ s organizational environment affect the overall management practices.
Among the earliest management frameworks, one of them was connected with an administrative organization that practiced management theories that were traditional in nature which were designed to control behavior (Barge and Oliver, 2003). On the other hand, modern theories of management have presented that the use of bureaucracy is not the most effective model nowadays (Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007). Therefore, this essay will discuss the classical as well as the contemporary theories of management. The essay will also compare past management practices with those practiced in today’ s organizations drawing illustrations from the two theories of management. The classical theory of management is a division of the management theories which developed in the 19th century during the age where challenges regarding factory systems commenced to identify the roles of the management plays within an organization specifically targeting the efficiency of the work process (Kominis and Emmanuel, 2007).
The classical approach to management acknowledges the form of management on the basis of the belief that staff members within an organization have only physical and economical needs whereas their social, as well as their job satisfaction requirements, are considered unimportant.
Furthermore, classical theory entails that the management of an organization is regarded as a logical process of interconnected functions (Kominis and Emmanuel, 2007). Furthermore, in this theory, executives within an organization utilize the principles of management as guidelines on how they run operations within an organization. In addition, the classical theory of management puts its emphasis on economic efficiency where staff members within an organization are motivated by economic gains as well as other available incentives (Kominis and Emmanuel, 2007).
Furthermore, classical theory is supported on three fundamental principles: bureaucracy, scientific management as well as administration. Although this theory offers specialization, structure, democracy, rationality, structure, and predictability, simultaneously it also provides a bulk of paperwork, rigidity, compartmentalization of work as well as goal displacement. Then again, classical theory has its strengths which include: clear organizational structure with degrees of management each having its own objectives and duties (Kominis and Emmanuel, 2007). Also, it allows proper division of labor breaking it into smaller tasks, making it easy to get done.
Furthermore, it emphasizes on autocratic type of leadership where decisions are made from the top and communicated down. Also, it supports the idea that staff members are motivated by monetary rewards therefore, they will function productively if they have an incentive awaiting them. On the other hand, contemporary theory of management exacts that when leaders make a decision, they ought to consider every facet of the present circumstance and perform on those elements that are fundamental to the imminent circumstances (Nickerson, Hsieh, and Zenger, 2007). The contingency theory exacts that there is no best manner of preparing an organization in terms of leading and making decisions.
Therefore, the ideal class of action is dependent on both the internal as well as external circumstances. For instance, technology influences variances in such organizational traits as the extent of control, the concentration of authority as well as preparation of regulations and procedures (Nickerson, Hsieh and Zenger, 2007).
Barge, J.K & Oliver, C 2003, Working with appreciation in managerial practice. Academy of Management Review, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 124-142.
Bloisi, W., Cook, C.W & Hunsaker, P 2003, Management and Organizational Behaviour, McGraw-Hill Education, European edition.
Bushe, G. R & Kassam, A. F 2005, When Is Appreciative Inquiry Transformational? A Meta- Case Analysis. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. Arlington, vol. 41, Iss. 2, pp. 161-182.
Eisenhardt, K. M & Graebner, M. E 2007, Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, vol. 50, pp. 25–32.
Kominis, G & Emmanuel, C.R 2007, The expectancy-valence theory revisited: Developing an extended model of managerial motivation. Management Accounting Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 49-55.
Nickerson, J. A., Hsieh, C & Zenger, T. R 2007, Opportunity Discovery, Problem Solving and a Theory of the Entrepreneurial Firm. Journal of Management Studies, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1255-1277.