The paper 'Cultural Factors Anticipated in Contract Negotiation between American and Arab Managers' is a perfect example of a Management Case Study. The negotiation consists of activities involved in communicating, consulting, discussing, or exchanging of ideas in order to arrive at a consensus. Scholars have differed on the link between a manager’ s behavior during the negotiation and their cultural shock (Muecke et al. 2010). Some scholars like Chang (2006) argued that negotiation is a common behavior, despite the negotiator’ s cultural background and that the behavior displayed by managers during a negotiation depends on a certain pre-set framework.
Conversely, other scholars are of the opinion that managers from different countries have different negotiation styles depending on their cultures (Millington & Schultz 2009). This paper believes in the second argument and further argues that the relationship between the behaviors displayed by managers and their cultures is not absolute (Jankiram & Rao 2007). During recent decades, technological and knowledge proliferation has led to increased information flow between different cultures resulting in intensified globalization. Intercultural communication to establish trade between different countries is also a significant outcome of globalization (Singh 2009; Muhammad et al.
2011). Since the negotiation methods or styles differ with culture, it is expected that the way in which a manager in the United States would negotiate with a manager in the United Arab Emirates vary (Downey et al. 2006)This essay argues that the Arab manager will negotiate differently from the American managers due to various factors language, time values, communication/body language, negotiations process, and self-identity. To show how culture influences negotiations, and how different cultural factors influence their decision-making styles, this paper examines the various cultural issues anticipation when American managers negotiate with the Arab managers. Hofstede's framework of cultural dimensions is proposed for this study, as it is widely used in management studies and applicable to unlimited national cultures (Hofstede 2011).
The framework proposes five dimensions that can be used to discuss and analyze the cultural issues expected when American managers negotiate with Arab managers. The five dimensions include individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity-femininity, and lastly, long-term orientation (Soares et al. 2007).
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