The paper "Managing Across Cultures" is a good example of management coursework. Culture is a popular word that is used all over the world although with different definitions. Brewer and Venaik (2011) define culture as “ Individuals dwelling in various regions of the world with different attitudes, behaviours as well a means of doing things” . In addition, Earley (2006) also defines culture as the attitudes and behaviour exhibited by a specific social group or organization. Furthermore, culture can well be defined as the aggregated scheduling of the mind that differentiates an individual belonging to a certain social group (Kirkman, Lowe and Gibson, 2006).
In general, culture is a set of values, actions as well as attitudes offering guidance to the moral behaviours of people within a group. Research into the global business has progressively become an active field over the past years and is predicted to increase in order for the operations of internationalization to proceed into the future. Researches related to culture are getting vast and therefore understanding culture will be perceived as a more and more significant aspect (Kirkman, Lowe and Gibson, 2006).
Cultural models determine the arrangement of fundamental matters that impact the operations of both groups as well as individuals. In order to clearly understand the dissimilarities in cultures, a number of models have been formulated which includes the Hofstede Model and Trompenaars Model. These models have offered scholars with a demanded perspective which looks into the structure of national cultures (Kirkman, Lowe and Gibson, 2006). However, there have been a number of debates between Hosted Model and Trompenaar Model which have argued about the similarities a well as the differences between the two models.
This essay provides an explanation of both the Hofstede Model and Trompenaar Model and carries out an analysis detailing out the similarities and differences of the two models. In addition, this essay will also analyze their usefulness for understanding the influences of cultural differences on organizations. Geert Hofstede was a Dutch psychologist who came up with the Hofstede Model which explicates the source of differences in behaviours which often at times results in problems (Mooij and Hofstede, 2010). In order to come up with explanations as well as solutions to the various issues created by individuals originating from various cultures who work together, Geert Hofstede encompassed five components of cultural differentiation.
These factors comprised of individualism/collectiveness, power distance, masculinism/feminism, long/short-term orientation and uncertainty avoidance. These five components explain the differences between nations and people (Mooij and Hofstede, 2010). On the other hand, Fons Trompenaars was a Dutch author who focused on the area of cross-cultural communication. He came up with the Trompenaars Model which explains the standardization of management operations in international companies due to internationalization which enforce their perspectives to their subsidiaries (Mooij and Hofstede, 2010).
Moreover, Fons Trompenaars also mentions that issues within an organization occur because they do not take into consideration the various cultural differences that exist between their staff members as well as other methods of management which aren’ t suitable for other cultures. Therefore, Trompenaars Model indicates how to accomplish complications within the heterogeneous environment which comes as a huge task in today’ s global managers as well as corporate leaders (Mooij and Hofstede, 2010). This model was comprised of seven factors namely: universalism vs.
particularism; specific vs. diffuse; individualism vs. collectivism; attitude to the environment; attitude to time; achievement vs. ascription and neutral vs. emotional.