The paper "Managing Across Cultures - National Culture and Organizational Culture" is an outstanding example of management coursework. Culture is the collective programming of individual minds that distinguishes members of one group from another. According to Hofstede, (2004 p. 322) national culture refers to the set of beliefs, customs, behaviors and norms that exist within the population of a particular nation. This culture distinguishes the international practices of one company from another in relation to management; in accordance with the operating environment of that company. In his research Hofstede goes further to describe the national culture in the perspective of the six dimensions that represent independent state affairs preferences of one country; that distinguishes it from other countries.
Organizational culture, on the other hand, refers to the behaviors and values of members of an organization; that contributes to the meaningful social and psychological environment within that particular organization. In view of managing across cultures, national culture and organizational culture present extensive challenges to managers working across borders; because the culture is never constant. The dynamism and constant changing quality aspect of culture have made studying management across cultures and how the same applies to individuals pursuing management careers all more worthy (Cotic & Bavec, 2013 p. 40).
This study discusses the concept of managing across cultures in the context of national culture and organizational culture and the relevance of the same; to individuals pursuing careers in management across cultures. Hofstede Culture Dimension Theory National culture has shown a great impact on major business operation in the global environment; ranging from the structure of an organization to the overall performance. Based on Hofstede’ s dimensions theory on culture, he creates models that explain issues relating to the cultural differences; especial national organizational culture on a global perspective.
Hofstede based his study on fifty countries to represent the differences in national cultures across the globe and according to the power distance model; he asserts how people perceive social inequality and embrace the same across cultures differently. He goes further to explain that high power distance children are usually raised to respect their elders; therefore having such employees in an organization will mean that the organizational culture will be more centralized.
The employees will tend to have a culture that expects them to be instructed on what to do. On the other hand, a low power distance culture portrays less desirability for equality; as employees prefer to lead, take part in decision-making and get consulted as democratic leaders. Since power and equality are very crucial aspects in any society a manager needs to note that some people are unequal to others in any organization as well as that some cultures are unequal than others. In countries with low power distance, inequalities between people tend to become low too resulting in consultative management style as small power distance encourages more communication between a manager and his subordinates.
However, in the countries with high power distance, there is more dependence on the boss; leading to an authoritarian leadership style. Therefore it is right to say that the power distance aspect in national culture affects organizational culture; hence impacting on how a manager will work across cultures both positively and negatively (Hofstede, 1997 p. 22).