Essays on Management of Health Services Literature review

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The paper "Management of Health Services" is a wonderful example of a literature review on management. Change management refers to the continuous process of reviewing an organization’ s structure, capabilities, and direction in order to satisfy the ever-changing needs of consumers (Edwinah & Ahiauzu, 2013). Change is a feature that is present in all organizations and occurs throughout an organization’ s life, both at strategic and operational levels. The manner in which an organization handles changes affects its performance, both in the short- and the long-run. Essentially, the kind of approaches adopted in an organization influence the success of the change process.

Despite recommendations by contemporary theories to incorporate employees’ knowledge and experience in the change process, evidence shows that their knowledge and experience are rarely taken into account (Edwinah & Ahiauzu, 2013). As well, research shows that most organizations still rely on top-down approaches to organizational change, which is based on traditional views of classical theories (Tuladhar et al, 2009). This approach has been shown to be ineffective mainly due to the fact that it does not take into account the opinion of lower-level personnel during the implementation of change.

The importance of learning in facilitating sustainable change in organizations has also been ignored (McMillan, 2008. As a result, most organizations have been unsuccessful in implementing large-scale changes. In this regard, this paper provides a critical review of change management in organizations in the contemporary world of business. Discussion The importance of knowledge, experience, and skills of workers in enhancing change within organizations is widely highlighted in the contemporary theory of change management (Goudge, 2006). However, research shows that the contribution of knowledge, skills, and experience of workers in the process of change is widely ignored (Brown & Cregan, 2008).

During a conversation I had with a friend who works as a junior staff with a local bank, it was apparent the lower-level staff perceive senior managers as being more knowledgeable, and thus, they recognize the suggestions and decisions of the managers as superior. He explained that senior managers usually design change without incorporating the opinions of the lower-level staff. This notion, however, ignores the importance of employee involvement and acceptance to the success of the change. As Edwinah and Ahiauzu (2013) explain, the lower-level personnel is always involved directly in the implementation of organizational goals.

The workers gain essential knowledge, experience, and skills while undertaking allocated tasks, both individually and in teams. Therefore, they are in a better position to understand the implications of change initiatives to their jobs. They can give vital recommendations that might make the change process to be more fruitful. Apart from capitalizing on the knowledge and experience of the workers, incorporating their suggestions in designing change helps to gain their loyalty, trust, and commitment (Morgan & Zeffane, 2003).

The workers are going to be more active in facilitating change since they believe that they are part of the change process. Therefore, organizations miss such benefits by ignoring the knowledge, skills, and experience of workers. On top of this, failure to incorporate the knowledge and skills of the workers negatively impacts on their trust, commitment, loyalty, and productivity (Morgan & Zeffane, 2003). In some cases, the workers respond by showing resistance to the change. In such circumstances, the change process faces hindrances and may not be successful.

It is therefore essential for senior managers in organizations to utilize the knowledge, skills, and experience of workers into the proposed change and where necessary, create change purely from the suggestions of the workers (Brown & Cregan, 2008). Senior management should take time to listen to the lower-level personnel and incorporate their opinions in the decision-making process.


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Edwinah, A. & Ahiauzu, A. (2013). Employee involvement and organizational effectiveness.

Journal of Management Development, 32(7), 661 – 674

Goudge, P. (2006). Employee research: how to increase employee involvement through

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