Essays on The Current and the Old Era of Globalization Literature review

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The paper "The Current and the Old Era of Globalization" is a great example of a business literature review.   The term globalization according to Grondin (1999) refers to the ability of international integration in terms of political, social and cultural aspects of various countries, through enhancing information and material exchange, via the developing modern transport and communication. Globalization is a term that has been in existence for some times now, since the early 18th century. It dates back to the agrarian revolution when the Europeans landowners, were outsourcing for slaves across the world.

It later becomes very prevalent again during the great industrial era, as the manufacturing industries sought a market for their readily manufactured goods across the world. This made it necessary for the companies to network with various potential customers, in the process, expanding their market and maximizing their gains. Today the world has become one big village. This is in the sense that, people, can move from one place to another with little or no restrictions at all, trade across the borders, exchange ideas freely as a result of technological advancements in both the transport system as well as a communication system.

This research paper contrasts the existing social, political, religious and cultural differences that have taken place in as far as both current era and the first age era of globalization is concerned, the differences that have arisen, the advantages and disadvantages brought about by globalization. Looking at the first age era of globalization, Grondin (1999) state that, human interaction has been around for years. He cites the Silk Road is an example of such a possibility.

The latter is claimed to have connected Asia, Africa and Europe and is cited as one of the oldest sign of international integration to have ever taken place. This was not just an opening for trade and sharing ideas, but was an avenue for cultural, social-economical, political and religious aspects of life, to be integrated. The discoveries of the oceans and its shores further opened the outside world for social-economic integration. This was made possible through the inventions made in the 1980s and early 1900, which were enhanced by the invention of steamships, railroads and communication technology.

These inventions have enhanced distance, speed of travelling and relaying messages as well as speedy global integration. This is the era that saw the birth of mobile phones, speedy internet, telecommunication and advancement in road transport. With the advancement of these facilities by the year 1820 and 1850, the real face of international integration was starting to the new face. This was the case since most countries could easily transport goods from one place to another more cheaply and speedily, as well as opening the unexploited shores of Asia and Africa.

Most countries started embracing the international commercial business, more so the shipment of goods and labor across the borders. In the modern world, globalization is taking all shapes of life ranging from trade, political, social, cultural, religious, justice as well as impacting in every dimension of life. This new face of globalization is seen to have impacted both negatively and positively upon different countries that are involved in sharing ideas and other materials. Some regions and people are taking very stern measures to shield themselves from the latter, as others take with much enthusiasm; thus citing the following positive and the possible negative outcome of the whole globalization issue.


Grondin, D. (1999). Global Migration and Infectious Diseases; Presentation at the Institute of Medicine Workshop on the Impact of Globalization on Infectious Disease Emergence and Control: Exploring the Consequences and the Opportunities; Washington, D.C. Institute of Medicine Forum on Emerging Infections,

Matthew, J. (1997). Power Shift: The Rise of Global Civil Society. Foreign Affairs, pp. 50-66.

McCorquodale, R. & Fairbrother, R. (1999). Globalization and Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, pp. 735-736.

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