The paper 'Total Quality Management Implementation and Competitive Advantage' is a perfect example of a Management Essay. The emergence of the factory and the wage system positively transformed the productivity of many industries. This is because an increasing number of people joined the labor market in order to sell their labor-power to the capitalist. After labor was gathered in the factory, managers and owners initiated the real subordination of labor strategy. Despite the existence of the subordination of the labor approach, controlling labor was really a struggle. Labor, therefore, becomes a major problem under the system (Jaffee, 2001).
In order to counter this particular problem various managerial approaches arose. Scientific management was the initial management school of thought. Contention has however arisen on whether the approach is really just a system for controlling workers (Jaffee 2001). This particular paper seeks to evaluate the major advantages and disadvantages of scientific management in the past and the present. Furthermore, the paper will analyze whether scientific Management is appropriate in workplaces today for effective management in general and for worker motivation in particular. Scientific management was proposed by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1865- 1915).
According to Taylor management is a discipline that involves the calm and systematic tasks of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. In general scientific management entails the application of scientific methods in order to ensure the productivity of workers (Jaffee 2001). One of the advantages of scientific management essentially in the past is that it assisted in resolving the problem of labor. The labor problem was manifested in two ways, this includes the control and possession of knowledge concerning the methods of production and the ability to implement discretion in the application of work effort.
Jaffee (2001) highlights that scientific management attempted to deal with the labor problem in a more systematic way. These two problems were openly confronted by scientist management on the basis of the views of the owners. In most cases, the knowledge of the workers was a potential problem for employers this is because it gave workers more power. The managers mostly depended on the knowledge of the workers for production to proceed. However, based on the fact that workers may sometimes be unscrupulous, lazy, and even conceited, production was bound to be affected.
The scientific management view, therefore, resolved these particular challenges by reducing labor to an object within the process of production, as opposed to having labored as the key determinant of production within the workplace. Consequently, through the application of science labor would be a factor of production that is more controllable and prone to malleability and manipulation (Jaffee, 2001). It can be argued that the reduction of labor to a factor production just like any other factor is beneficial to management even in contemporary organizations.
This is because as presented by Mintzberg (1971) managerial work entails organizing, controlling, coordinating, and planning. Consequently, when labor is more controllable and prone to malleability, the work of the managers becomes more specific as opposed to the period before the factory system whereby the role of the managers was not well outlined. Another advantage of the scientific management approach is that the principle of delegation of work between the management and the workers is an effective step of minimizing the workload for both parties and thus enhancing efficiency in the process of management and also the performance of the employees.
Mintzberg (1971) reveals that one major problem that was facing many managers in the 20th century, in spite of the expansion of modern organizations is that managers expected to get little help. In most cases, the workload of most managers is too much. He/she must take full charge of the organization, design the information system, control the employee, and plan most of the activities of the organization. In addition, the manager is forced to carry the full burden of responsibility in the organization.
Managing the organization, therefore, becomes a burden. As much as the manager would want things to be done right it becomes quite difficult. According to Mintzberg (1971) managers face the dilemma of delegation. Based on Mintzberg's (1971) description of the situation in modern organizations; essentially concerning the dilemma of the delegation that is facing most managers. It can be argued that scientific management is quite relevant and beneficial to modern organizations. This is because by delegating tasks to the workers the manager can become more efficient.
The 21st century has however witnessed effective utilization of the scientific management approach based on the fact that many managers today delegate duties. This has proven to be beneficial for many organizations. For instance, the employees in Chinese firms have become increasingly innovative due to the involvement of employees in decision making (Yuan, et al, 2006).
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