The paper "Domestic Violence in Australia " is a great example of marketing coursework. Domestic violence is one of the major problems facing various citizens in all countries all over the world, although not usually openly dealt with and viewed as significant. This essay will focus on domestic violence against women and the girl child. Violence is any form of activity, be it physical, mental or otherwise that has an impact on one’ s health or wellbeing. Domestic violence is harmful acts perpetrated at the household level, usually by relatives. Women and girls are more prone to domestic violence because of the perception that they are a weaker species and cannot, therefore, protect themselves against the offenders. The major terms associated with domestic violence against women and girls are sexual assault, female genital mutilation and physical abuse. Pamela Powell and Marilyn Smith, in an article titled Domestic Violence: An Overview, concentrate on one specific aspect of domestic violence, which they refer to as intimate partner violence (IPV).
They define this to be acts of violence meted upon victims by the people whom they are in an intimate relationship with.
The authors observe that most IPV acts are never reported to the authorities mostly because of the fear of retaliation by the offenders in case the prosecution does not find them guilty and that due to this cases’ nature, most victims are ashamed and blame themselves for not having left the relationship early enough. The article categorizes abuse into five groups; physical, sexual, economic, emotional and psychological. Physical includes acts of beating, slapping and even shoving of the victims and leaves behind bruises and swelling.
Sexual abuse includes marital rape (where one married partner forces the other to engage in sexual intercourse) and violent attacks on the one’ s sexual parts. Economic abuse is where the victim is denied access to family resources and has to, therefore, remain dependent on the oppressor. In cases where access to money is allowed, he/she has to be increasingly accountable. Emotional abuse focuses on the mindset and includes occasional criticism and name-calling that lowers one’ s self-esteem, leaving behind a feeling of worthlessness. Psychological abuse is mostly as a result of threats and intimidation. The article also notes that domestic violence does not only impact the individual and family but also the community as the offenders will always want to show dominance over the victim at all places, whether at the workplace, market or worship place.
They recommend awareness as the major step towards eradicating domestic violence menace. Powell & Smith(2011, pg. 5 - 21) UNICEF in their publication titled Domestic Violence against Women and Girls state that no society across the world is free of domestic violence, although its prevalence varies. It defines domestic violence as the violent acts inflicted upon others within or beyond the home, as long as they are committed by relatives such as intimate partners, parents or guardians.
Violence acts are mostly carried out by men against women or girls, but fewer instances are reported of women being the offenders. The publication states that abuse occurs in cycles during one’ s existence, beginning as early as pre-birth where sex-selective abortion is carried out to the older years where the elderly are raped. It also categorizes violence as physical, sexual, psychological and emotional.
The publication, however, introduces new forms of violence such as the femicide-the killing of women by their oppressors; sex-selective abortion in societies where the gender of the unborn child is of very great concern and one sex is preferred over the other, female infanticide where children are killed when still young and female genital mutilation. The publication attests that there are no widely accepted causes behind domestic violence but there are factors behind its wide prevalence. This factors include cultural, where beliefs such as female being submissive make the females not to report abuse; economic where a woman’ s dependence on the man makes her vulnerable and force her to bow down to his wishes; legal where the literacy levels of women on their rights are very low and political factors where the females are underrepresented in political power and domestic violence is viewed as a family dispute.
Australia's National Research Organisation for Women's Safety, 2012. Violence against Women: Key Statistics, s.l.: s.n.
Castelino, T., Colla, M. & Boulet, J., 2013. Social Marketing for Preventing Violence against Women: Making every Action Matter, Victoria: s.n.
Garcia, C. et al., 2005. Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Violence: Initial responses on Prevalence, Health Outcomes and Women's Responses, Geneva: WHO Press.
Powell, P. & Smith, M., 2011. Domestic Violence: An Overview. University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, 11(76), pp. 5-21.
Shane, B. & Ellsberg, M., 2002. Violence against Women: Effects on Reproductive Health. Outlook, 20(1), pp. 1-6.
UNICEF, 2000. Domestic Violence against Women and Girls. Innocenti Digest, May, pp. 3 - 20.