NationalismIntroductionIn this review, we will examine one of the most important topics in the world today: Nationalism and its relation with International Management context. The course begins with an overview of nationalism, including topics such as definitions of nation and nationalism, Identifying if nationalism really affects international management and its effect on product management, communication management, political economy, culture, consumer ethnocentrism. Concept of NationalismNationalism encompasses majorly of two phenomena noted as (1) the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their identity as members of that nation and (2) the actions that the members of a nation take in seeking to achieve or to sustain a way political sovereignty.
(See for example, Nielsen 1998-99: 9.) Both these two raises questions about the concept of nation or national identity, about what it is to belong to a nation and about how much one must care about one's nation. Nations and national identity may be defined in terms of common origin, ethnicity, or cultural ties, and while an individual's membership in the nation is often regarded as involuntary, it is sometimes regarded as voluntary.
The degree of care for one's nation that is required by nationalists is often, but not always, taken to be very high: according to such views, the claims of one's nation take precedence over rival contenders for authority and loyalty (see Berlin 1979, Smith 1991, Levy 2000, and the discussion in Gans 2003). It also tells a questions about whether sovereignty entails the acquisition of full statehood with complete authority for domestic and international affairs, or whether something less than statehood would suffice. Although sovereignty is often taken to mean full statehood, more recently possible exceptions have been recognizedDespite these definitional worries, there is a fair amount of agreement about what is historically the most typical form of nationalism.
It is the one which features the supremacy of the nation's claims over other claims to individual allegiance and which features full sovereignty as the persistent aim of its political program. The state as political unit is seen by nationalists as centrally ‘belonging’ to one ethno-cultural group and as charged with protecting and promulgating its traditions.
This form is exemplified by the classical, “revivalist” nationalism, that was most prominent in the 19th century in Europe and Latin America. This classical nationalism later spread across the world and in present days still marks many contemporary nationalisms. The Concept of a NationIn its general form the issue of nationalism concerns the mapping between the ethno-cultural domain (featuring ethno-cultural groups or “nations”) and the domain of political organization. In breaking the issue into its components, we have mentioned the importance of the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity.
This point raises two sorts of questions. First, the descriptive ones. What is a nation and national identity? What is it to belong to a nation? In this section the descriptive questions are to be discussed, starting with What is a nation and national identity? and what is it to belong to a nation? If one wants to enjoin people to struggle for the national interest, one must have some idea about what a nation is and what it is to belong to a nation.
So, in order to formulate and ground their evaluations, claims and directives for action, pro-nationalist thinkers have been elaborating theories of ethnicity, culture, nation and state. Their opponents have in their turn challenged these elaborations. Now, some presuppositions about ethnic groups and nations are essential for the nationalist, others are theoretical elaborations designed to support the essential ones. The former concern the definition and status of the target or social group, the beneficiary of the nationalist program, variously called “nation, ” “ethno-nation” or “ethnic-group. ” Since nationalism is particularly prominent with groups that do not yet have a state, a definition of nation and nationalism purely in terms of belonging to a state is a non-starter.