Essays on Negotiations with the Chinese: Expectations and Preparation Case Study

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The paper "Negotiations with the Chinese: Expectations and Preparation" is a good example of a business case study.   There is an immense rift between Australia’ s and culture of the Chinese concerning the historical influences, assumptions, business strategies, systems of economy, tactics, and varied business-linked understandings and interpretations. These dissimilarities pose an immense challenge for attaining workable outcomes in business negotiations. This report examines how the Australian business can enter negotiations within Chinese cultural contexts as they relate to business discussions, and examines the expectations and the preparations for the negotiations.

The report provides recommendations for averting pitfalls and increasing effectiveness in the negotiations. Introduction Negotiations across borders often face the hurdle of completely dissimilar negotiating styles and approaches grounded in culture and local history. Arbiters are usually inclined to factor in the customary mannerisms in business in an alien state with dissimilar customs and traditions that are rude or inappropriate (Akgunes, Culpepper & Austin 2012, p. 191). Historical settings with divergent timelines or events have developed rich and highly distinct cultures. These cultural trends are deeply woven in the business negotiations fabric influencing failure and success in often-subtle ways.

Notably, the Chinese negotiators are some of the finest worldwide and given the significance of the Chinese market to numerous sectors and businesses, it is crucial to comprehend the procedure of Chinese negotiation. The Chinese negotiators usually like developing a relationship and getting to know an individual or company before committing much exertion into the details of the business. The preparation of business with the Chinese follows Deresky (2003, p. 4) proposition of preparation, relationship development, exchanging related information, persuasion, and concessions. Thus, business negotiations with the Chinese will necessitate a careful preparation comprising the familiarization with the Chinese cultural context and background in addition to the subject of discussion.

Tactical preparations need to be made to avoid negotiation challenges, which are caused by distinctions in environment, language, culture, etc. Cultural Effects on Negotiation Hofstede’ s framework on culture considers China as a high context culture. In such a culture, more focus is placed on taking care of the interests of groups as opposed to individual interests (Ghauri & Fang 2001, p. 306). Colleagues are expected to assist one another.

Mangers from China and Australia managers have dissimilar anticipations regarding the setting, which should dominate for negotiations. Many people usually come from a firm meeting to deliberate on matters that concern the talks in China. In the Chinese high context culture, personal relations, non-verbal behaviour, and social context are collectively significant in talks (Zhao 2009, p. 211). These are additionally vital in comparison to the lawful agreement, which comes from the negotiations. Some words could suggest much. The set up for instance harmony or tension of the talks can make or jeopardize the discussions.

In China, the team is often accorded more importance as opposed to individual interests. The Chinese’ s belief in acting right as opposed to just following legal demands. They often sacrifice outcomes expected in the short run for the powerful long-run objectives (Culpepper, Austin & Akgunes, 2012, p. 192). Major Roots of Chinese Culture The main roots of China’ s culture are grounded in factors that characterize the region for more than five thousand years (Lam & Graham, 2003, p. 82). A major factor is the Chinese sense of morality grounded on Confucianism.

Confucius, an ancient Chinese philosopher wrote books that have influenced the Chinese culture of morality. His lessons have maintained the definition of Chinese morals. For instance, potential employees of the government are obligated to learn Confucianism before assuming office. Confucius's key philosophical principles comprise the establishment of an organized society, which operates under a humane moral code (Akgunes, Culpepper & Austin 2012, p. 194). According to the philosophy, there are five main relationships i. e. the ruled and the ruler, the wife and husband, parents and their kids, friend and friend, and elder and younger relations.

These relations have a hierarchical relation to each other. The teachings still take a key role in influencing the attitudes of the Chinese toward authority. Therefore, reciprocity, hierarchy, and interdependence are the key elements of Confucianism’ s interpersonal relationships (Sebenius 2002, p. 78). Failure to honour the attributes can threaten interpersonal relationships and mutual trust among negotiating partners. Hierarchy is mirrored in the manner the Chinese people greet and address one another, the speakers during meetings, and decision-making processes.

Addressing senior memberships of a Chinese group by name, without their formal title, during a meeting with the entire group, would be regarded highly impolite. The immense expectation of the Chinese concerning reciprocity in business negotiations grows from Confucius’ admonition.

References

Buttery, A & Leung, K 1998, ‘The difference between Chinese and Western negotiations,’ European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 32, no. 3/4, pp.374-389.

Deresky, H 2003. International management: Managing across borders and cultures. Pearson Education India.

Gelfand, M & Dyer, N 2000, ‘A cultural perspective on negotiation: Progress, pitfalls, and prospects,’ Applied Psychology, Vol. 49, no.1, pp.62-99.

Ghauri, P & Fang, T 2001, ‘Negotiating with the Chinese: A socio-cultural analysis,’ Journal of World Business, Vol. 36, no. 3, pp.303-325.

Hutchings, K., 2002. Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates in organizations in China: Selection and in-post support. Cross Cultural Management, 9(3), pp.15-40.

Sebenius, J K 2002, ‘The Hidden Challenge of Cross-Border Negotiations,’ Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80, pp. 76-85.

Zhao, J 2000, ‘The Chinese Approach to International Business Negotiation,’ Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 37, pp. 209-214.

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