The paper 'Non-Governmental Organization - the United States Agency for International Development " is a good example of a management case study. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) focusing on the development have increased their profiles at local and international levels for the last twenty years. NGOs are recognized as significant actors in the landscape of development. For example, efforts of restoration in countries such as Sri Lanka, Indonesia and India after the 2004 Tsunami disaster were attributable to NGOs. NGOs have also led international campaigns for trade and reforms (Hilhorst, 2003).
They are known for undertaking various activities that include the delivery of basic services to vulnerable people and initiating policy advocacy and public campaigns for change. They have become active in various roles such as environmental activism, the building of democracy, emergency response, resolution of conflicts and work on human rights. Other roles include cultural preservation, policy analysis, and research and information provision. NGOs emerge from small-scale origins and grow into large and more complex organizations. It takes an individual or a group of people with similar ideas to come together and discover a solution to an existing humanitarian problem.
In the initial stages, the most urgent priority of an NGO was to provide immediate needs by undertaking relief and welfare work. In the second generation (Clarke & Thomas, 2006), NGOs focus on the objectives of establishing small-scale, self-reliant development objectives at the local level as they acquire relative experience and build better knowledge. A stronger focus on sustainability emerges in the third generation. There is a stronger interest in influencing institutional and policy context through advocacy (Hilhorst 2003). NGOs have become closely linked to social movements in the fourth generation.
They combine local activities with programs at a global and national level that aim at realizing a lasting structural change. Literature Review There exist numerous NGOs in the world. No comprehensive or reliable statistics have indicated the approximate number of NGOs. However, the NGOs differ incapacity due to funding and the scope of their mandate. The United Nations reports that there are approximately 35000 large established NGOs (Hilhorst, 2003). These NGOs receive international aid. $US 23billion of the total monetary assistance came from non-governmental organizations.
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