Examples of disasters are of two origins, natural or man-induced and range from floods, plane crash, volcanic eruptions, avalanches, droughts and famine, tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, business failure just to mention but a few (GisDevelopment, 2010.). Question 1: System Approach in Studying Disaster It's worth noting that with the passage of time, disasters keep on increasing especially in this 21st century, therefore there is a need to systematically manage these disasters for the betterment of the human race. This will help reduce the mass loss of human life as well as the destruction of properties.
There is a need to strongly analyze in theory and practice the whole issues as it revolving between human beings, their surroundings, and society as a whole. The system approach is in the study of disaster is a modern study that looks at disasters as being large and complex as it entails a number of various issues (France24, 2010). The application of the approach revolves around the following issues at the same time; risk analysis, vulnerability, and risk assessment. It’ s required that tools be developed so that risk can be curbed successfully.
The development eventually will strongly support prevention and bring about activities for instance registration, monitoring, and forecasting, issuing early warnings are vital in managing disasters (Humanitarian, 2009). The system approach as other risk management approaches does have the following characteristics, planned and documented risk management process, the process is on the basis of prospective assessment, there are periodic reviews of the assessment aimed at validating initial findings as well as bringing to light new problems, and there is a determined set of assessment criteria practical in order to swathe all aspects of the process (Afrasiabi, 2009).
Finally, the on-going results of the entire risk disaster management are written down for reference purposes. For disasters to be effectively managed, the concept of vulnerability of the system and object at risk opt to be carefully evaluated. It’ s equally important to carry out a cost-benefit analysis of measures to be used to evaluate foreseen damage to the system and to the structures. The main problem is that there are some damages that cannot be quantified for instance damage caused to the cultural heritage of a society, loss of market share, loss of life, loss of indigenous residential areas. According to Songer, (1999) Risk assessment entails a wider technique to comprehend the possible potential impacts of natural disasters or hazards on the environment as well as the activities carried out by human beings.
For example, in the occurrence of an earthquake, the implications to the surroundings together with how the event will impact the daily social, political, and economic activities of the people within such an area would be tried to be understood and documented.
The objective involves coming up with methods that will give room to the proper allocation of resources at hand so that the protection of various properties is fully protected. Thirdly, on the basis of hazard assessment, a thorough study is carried out on natural hazards interacting at various chronological and spatial levels taking place on different locations, regional and international scale (Iitis, 2009). It’ s important to have knowledge of physical and individual hazards of which it has been already studied. After all the above has been done, there two main lines of development that include; one, it important to clearly understand the elementary relation or link between man-made and natural disasters as well as the process of globalization.
Three main aspects are vital here; the link and relationship between disaster and economic development, sustainability and disaster, resource allocation mainly technology and capital, and the disaster. Two, the principle of welfare for instance exploring old fashioned methods of intertemporal and interregional measures of the government should be dealt with. These then lead us to precautionary principle hence making the approach to be more problem-oriented. As noted earlier, the main problem with the system approach as used in studying disaster is that it fails to clearly give qualitative data on losses as a result of natural disasters.
For instance, when a hurricane, mudslide leads to the destruction of cultural heritage, loss of life, human displacement hence some family members cannot find their members, all these are not quantifiable. On the other hand, it a very good approach in studying disasters chiefly because it incorporates three main and vital aspects which are vulnerability, risk analysis, and risk assessment when successfully dealt with bringing about successful handling of disasters of any kind and magnitude (Ahuja & Tarrant, 2010).
The system approach is also responsible for the development of project portfolio which is of importance to the Disaster Risk Management responsible for carrying out applied research, preventing disasters among other responsibilities.
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