The paper "Organisational Behaviour Issues" is a good example of management coursework. The five bases of power within organizations are reward, coercive, legitimate, referent and expert (Randolph & Kemery 2011, p. 96). Coercive power happens when one is forced to comply in acting in a manner he or she does not desire, through the threat of force. Force may be in the form of political, emotional, social, economic or physical (Randolph & Kemery 2011, p. 96). The influencing tactics may be personal and impersonal use of force. For example, an employee is made to believe that if he does not accomplish certain tasks; his manager will impose a monetary fine on him or have him dismissed.
The influence of personal and impersonal coercion can have some negative short term problems, including abuses and other unhealthy behaviours in the workplace. The performance of the organization in the long term might be affected negatively due to dissatisfaction in the workplace (Randolph & Kemery 2011, p. 106). Reward power happens when some people use their rights, to offer social, emotional, tangible and spiritual rewards to others who have done a good job (Kozan, Ergin & Varoglu 2014, p.
39). The same people can use their rights to deny others something tangible, political, spiritual, emotional or social for failing to perform well or refusing to do what is expected of them. For example, the top-performing employees may be given a party annually and their salaries increased. This kind of power has a positive short term and long term outcomes for the performance of an organization because the workforce is motivated to work hard to be rewarded positively.
The workforce will avoid negative behaviours in the workplace to avoid negative rewards such as fines and therefore the productivity of the organization will improve (Kozan, Ergin & Varoglu 2014, p. 49). Legitimate power happens when a person of authority uses his abilities to administer notions of responsibility and obligation to others (Kozan, Ergin & Varoglu 2014, p. 39). This kind of power is derived from the social norms of the appointed or elected position of authority. The influencing tactics in this kind of power would be rewarding and punishing employees according to the formal leadership role of the managerial position.
For example, a chief executive officer is given the role of determining the direction of a company and the resources the company needs. The short and long term effect of this is that there will be a shared vision and goals emanating from a central position of authority, which will improve the productivity of an organization (Kozan, Ergin & Varoglu 2014, p. 45). Referent power is when one is respected and trusted (Randolph & Kemery 2011, p. 106). One gains referent power when other people trust what one does and respect how one handles situations.
For example, a human resource manager who is respected for making sure that all employees are treated fairly and come to the rescue of those who are not given fair treatment. This type of power has many positive short and long term effects in the organization such as increased job satisfaction and good communication (Randolph & Kemery 2011, p. 106). Expert power is gained from one's experiences, knowledge and skills (Randolph & Kemery 2011, p.
96). When people gain experience in specific areas, people regard them as being leaders, and later they get expert power that is utilized by others to meet organizations goals. For example, an individual who is an expert in solving particular challenges is elected as a project manager to make sure the project is accomplished successfully. Expert power makes sure that an organization meets its specified goals and objectives by having experts handling specific challenges (Randolph & Kemery 2011, p. 106).