The paper "Big Five Model of Personality, How Leadership Style Is Influenced by Personality" is a great example of management coursework. Personality can be defined as the way a person reacts to external factors and interacts with other people (Cheung et al. , 2011). Our personality is highly affected by the day-to-day activities happening around us, either in the organisational environment or social environment. The process of perceiving as well as learning happens in both environments and thus influences our personality in a way that is reflected in our behaviours. Everyone has distinctive motives, expectations, values and norms, which, when combined, result in behaviour (Cheung et al. , 2011).
Many research studies have concluded that leaders’ personalities tend to affect the style they use when performing their tasks. A number of personality dimensions are said to be related to leadership effectiveness, including extroversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness and agreeableness (Judge et al. , 2002). This paper will describe the Big Five Model of Personality and analyse how leadership style is influenced by personality. In addition, the paper will examine the strengths and weaknesses of my personality profile as derived from the Big Five Model. Overall, behaviour emerges from the interaction of an individual’ s principal personality and situational variables.
The social environment in which an individual finds himself plays a fundamental role in his reactions (Judge and Bono, 2000). Nevertheless, sometimes individuals respond in ways that reflect their underlying personality traits. Organisational behaviour refers to how individuals and groups affect human behaviour in an organisational setting (Judge and Bono, 2000). Many factors intermingle when individuals interact in such a setting. Organisational behaviour is important for organisational development, improving individual and team performance and enhancing organisational performance. As seen earlier, personality affects behaviour not only in a social setting but also in an organisation.
Therefore, it is recommended that managers assess their personalities (Mishra, 2001). Personality tests aid managers in predicting the perfect fit for a particular job and are useful in employment decisions. One of the methods most commonly used to measure one’ s personality is the self-report survey (Bono and Judge, 2004). There are two dominant frameworks used in personality measurement: the Big Five Model of Personality and Myers– Briggs Type Indicator.
The Big Five Model assists a person to understand why he acts the way he does and how his personality is structured. This model has research support, is considered statistically stable and has been tested on the basis of cross-culture context. The Big Five Model is often referred to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator because it represents almost all traits and predicts not only persona outcomes but also work outcomes, taking into consideration important predictors such as past experiences and universal intelligence (Poropat, 2009). The personality traits covered in the Big Five Model include conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness to experience (Gosling, Rentfrow and Swann, 2003).
Openness to experience is a personality trait that leads an individual to seek new experiences as well as intellectual abilities. People with a high score in openness to experience are imaginative, creative and subtle risk-takers while those with low scores tend to be down to earth (Gosling, Rentfrow and Swann, 2003). Extroversion causes an individual to seek fulfilment from external sources. Those with higher scores for this trait are considered outgoing, confident, glib and sociable.
Low scorers often prefer working alone on their projects at work. Agreeableness indicates how people adjust their traits and behaviours in order to fit into other people’ s environments (Gosling, Rentfrow and Swann, 2003). High scorers are often courteous, caring and good-natured while low scorers tend to follow their own inner voices without considering other people’ s feelings. Conscientiousness is a trait related to being honest and hardworking (Shao and Webber, 2006). A high score in this personality trait generally indicates an individual is careful, achievement-oriented, self-disciplined and dependable. People with a high conscientiousness score focus intensely to achieve their goals (Shao and Webber, 2006).
Neuroticism refers to a vulnerability to negative emotions and apprehension. High scorers are typically anxious, insecure and highly depressed, and they are prone to be affected by negative reactions. Conversely, low scorers are not emotionally affected by negative emotions or anxiety (Shao and Webber, 2006).
Bono, J. E and Judge, T. A. 2004, “Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 901–910.
Cheung, F. M., Vijver, F. J. R. van de and Leong, F. T. L. 2011, “Toward a new approach to the study of personality in culture”, American Psychologist, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 593–603.
Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J. and Swann, W. B., Jr. 2003, “A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains”, Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 504–528.
Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. and Gerhardt, M.W 2002, “Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 765–80.
Judge, T. A. and Bono, J. E. 2000, “Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 751–765.
Lim, B. and Ployhart, R. E 2004, “Transformational leadership: relations to the five-factor model and team performance in typical and maximum contexts”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 610–621.
Mishra, M. 2001, Organisational Behaviour, New Delhi, Vikas Pub. House.
Parikh, M. and Gupta, R. 2010, Organisational Behaviour, New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill Education Pte. Ltd.
Poropat, A. E. 2009, “A meta-analysis of the ﬁve-factor model of personality and academic performance”, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 322–338.
Prati, L. M., Douglas, C., Ferris, G. R., Ammeter, A. P. and Buckley, M. R. 2003, “Emotional intelligence, leadership effectiveness, and team outcomes”, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 21–30
Robbins, S. P., and Judge, T. A. 2015, Organizational Behavior. Global edition (16th ed.), Essex, England, Pearson.
Saiyadain, M. 2003, Organisational Behaviour, New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill.
Shao, L. and Webber, S. 2006, “A cross-cultural test of the ‘five-factor model’ of personality and transformational leadership”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 936–44.
Zach, S., Raviv, S. and Inbar, R. 2007, “The benefits of a graduated training program for security officers on physical performance in stressful situations”, International Journal of Stress Management, vol. 14, pp. 350–69.