Essays on Dark Side of Organisational Behavior Essay

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper 'Dark Side of Organisational Behaviors' a perfect example of a Management Essay. In the book, “ The Dark Side of Organizational Behaviour” , Griffin & O’ Leary-Kelly (2004) observe that over time theory and research on organizational behavior have evolved from a relatively narrow and simplistic discipline to a broader and richer focus. Unlike in the past where the study of organizational behavior mainly took into account concepts and behavior that were functional in nature, the new wave of theory and research in this field has also directed focus towards behaviors that are less functional and have negative consequences or costs on the individual, members of the organization and the organization at large.

This evolution has led to the emergence of a concept referred to as “ the dark side of organizational behavior” . Griffin & O’ Leary-Kelly (2004) consider the dark side of organizational behavior to be “ motivated behavior by an employee or a group of employees that has negative consequences for the individual or groups of individuals within the organization and the organization itself. ” (Griffin & O’ Leary-Kelly 2004, p. 4). They further note that the dark side of organizational behavior brings about negative outcomes which can be perceived as costs that can manifest themselves in different forms. In reference to the sentiments of Griffin & O’ Leary-Kelly (2004), this paper seeks to critically examine the relative importance of the dark side of organizational behavior.

By drawing on relevant literature sources it provides a multilevel perspective on critical aspects of deviant or unacceptable employee behavior and their implications for organizational effectiveness. Dark Side of Employee Behavior In order to effectively understand the relative importance of the dark side of organizational behavior, it is perhaps crucial to explore some of the underlying factors that prompt such behaviors.

Herbst (2014) argues that the dark sides of organizational behavior particularly in relation to leadership are prompted by a combination of situational and behavioral factors. Situational factors touch on the organizational context in which employees or leaders operate in. Henle (2005) refers to these factors as ‘ situation based behavior’ . In this regard, Griffin and O’ Leary-Kelly (2004) note that some determinants of dark side organizational behavior reside at the group or organizational level and are characterized by factors such as reward and control systems, norms, and organizational culture.

Henle (2005) adds that situational based behaviors are influenced by the workplace environment irrespective of their nature. On the other hand, behavioral factors touch on inherent or conditioned individual attributes. Griffin and Lopez (2005) identify an individual’ s ethics, values, and morals as some of the underlying factors that could prompt dark side organizational behavior which is found at the level of an individual. Moreover, pathological factors such as depression, borderline personality disorders, and extra-work phenomenon such as personal stress and family constrains are also instigating factors of dark side behavior found within the individual realm (Griffin and Lopez 2005). As previously observed by Griffin & O’ Leary-Kelly (2004), the dark side of organizational behavior brings about negative outcomes which can be perceived as costs.

These costs manifest themselves in different forms and can occur at different levels. Some costs are real and measurable. For example, when an employee steals $10, 000 from an organization, this dark behavior can be directly felt and measured in the short-term.

Other costs are subjective and in-direct. For example, when an employee reveals confidential company information to the public, it is difficult to directly measure the impact of such behavior in the short-term. However, in the long-run such behavior can bring about an adverse impact on the organization. For instance, the reputation and influence of the organization may suffer (Griffin & O’ Leary-Kelly 2004).


Appelbaum, S.H, Deguire, K.J & Lay, M. 2005, ‘‘The relationship of ethical climate to deviant

workplace behavior’’, Corporate Governance, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 43-56.

Bayman, P.A & Hussain, T., 2007, ‘Receptionists’ perceptions of violence in general Practice’,

Occupational Medicine vol. 57, pp. 492–498.

Budd, J.W, Arvery, R.D. & Lawless, P. 1996, “Correlates and Consequences of Workplace Violence,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol 1, no. 2, pp. 197–210.

Chappell, D. & Di Martino, V. 2006,Violence at Work, International Labour Office, Geneva.

Colbert, A.E., Mount, M.K., Harter, J, K, Witt, L.A & Barrick, M.R 2004, ‘Interactive effects of personality and perceptions of the work situation on workplace deviance’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 89 pp 599-609.

Dressler, S., 2004, Strategy, organisational effectiveness and performance management: From basics to best practices, Universal, Florida.

Foote, D.A & Li- ping, T.T 2008, “Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: Does team commitment make a difference in self- directed teams? ” Journal of management Decision, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 933-947

Galperin, B.L., 2002, Determinants of deviance in the workplace: an empirical examination in Canada and Mexico unpublished doctoral dissertation, Concordia University, Montreal.

Griffin R.W & Lopez, Y.P. 2005, “Bad Behavior in Organizations: A Review and Typology for Future Research,’ Journal of Management , Vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 988-1005.

Griffin, R.W. & O’Leary-Kelly, A. 2004, The Dark Side of Organizational Behaviour, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Hall, D.,Schneider, T.B & Nygren, H.T. 1970, ‘Personal factors in organizational identification’, Administrative Science Quarterly vol 15, pp. 176-190.

Henle, C.A. 2005, ‘‘Predicting workplace deviance from the interaction between organisational justice and personality’’, Journal of Managerial Issues, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 247.

Herbst, T. 2014, The Dark Side of Leadership: A psycho- spiritual approach towards understanding the origin of personality dysfunctions, derailment and restoration, Author House, Bloomington Indiana.

Heugten, K.V., 2010, “Bullying of Social Workers: Outcomes of a Grounded Study into Impacts and Interventions”. British Journal of Social Work vol 40, pp. 638-655.

International Labour Organisation 2003, Draft guidelines on safety and health in shipbreaking, report for the Interregional Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Safety and Health in Shipbreaking for Selected Asian Countries 20-27 May, Available online at

LeBlanc, M.M & Kelloway, E.K 2002, ‘Predictors and outcomes of workplace violence and aggression’ Journal of Applied Psychology, vol 87, pp. 444-453.

Moore, E. M., 2007, The impact of leadership style on organizational effectiveness: Leadership in action United Way of America, Proquest, New York.

Richard, P., Devinney, T., Yip, G., & Johnson, G., 2009, ‘Measuring organizational performance: Towards methodological best practice’, Journal of Management vol 35,pp.718 – 804

Schat, A.C. & Kelloway, K, 2003, ‘Reducing the Adverse Consequences of Workplace Aggression and Violence: The Buffering Effects of Organizational’, Support Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 110 –122

Sherman, M. F, Gershon, R.R, Samar, S.M, Pearson, J.M, Canton, A.N. & Damsk, M.R, 2008, ‘Safety factors predictive of job satisfaction and job retention among home healthcare aides’, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 50, no.12, pp1430–1441.

Spreitzer, G. & Sonenshein, S., 2003, “Positive Deviance and Extraordinary Organizing,” in K. S. Cameron, J. Dutton and R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive Organizational Scholarship, Berrett Koehler Publishers, San Francisco.

Quine, L., 2001, ‘Workplace bullying in nurses’, Journal of Health Psychology vol 6, pp 73–84.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us