Essays on Expectancy Theory in Work and Motivation Literature review

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The paper 'Expectancy Theory in Work and Motivation' is a great example of a Management Literature Review. According to Robbins (2009), organizational behavior entails close observation of individuals and their behavioral aspects and actions within an organization, in the workplace context and setting. It involves the consideration of human sociology, psychology, communication patterns, and management policies and how these elements harmonize the organization's theories and human resource management. Organizational behavior combines individual and group aspects in an organizational setup. Generally, it observes strategic management in regards to how organizations adapt to structures and guidelines that control them. The main aspect of organizational behavior is the need to control, predict, and explain all activities in the organization as described by Robbins (2009).

This entails the ethics of managing worker’ s behavior to enhance organizational performance. It also targets individual and group performance, satisfaction, and loyalty towards the organization’ s mission and vision. Workers are known to have complex personalities made up of various attitudes, beliefs, and needs, and they should be motivated and well managed in order to produce the best performance (Robbins, 2009). The importance of motivating employees who survive a layoff Employee layoffs bring numerous changes in the organization's workplace set-up.

These changes create issues that impact the capability of individual employees to manage change and continue functioning productively within the new environment. It is very significant for managers to recognize the fact that survivors may not be able to perform in the same capacity as before due to intense changes. They, therefore, need to be motivated as an integral recovery process in the organization (Wahba & House, 1974). Employee layoffs lead to job insecurity and mistrust upon the survivors who remain in the job after a certain group has been downsized.

Job security should be guaranteed such that employees can survive in that environment which is full of fear, anger, mistrust, and insecurity. It is very important for employers to invest more in the people who remain such that productivity is fueled and morale is boosted. This could help reduce damage to the trust that existed before the layoff by aiding the workers to recover well from the loss (Jones and George, 2004). According to Macey & Schneider (2008) motivating employees who survive a layoff is vital since these groups of workers need to be reassured about their value to the employer.

They need to be assured that they are effective and contribute invaluably to the work environment. The security of the job is significant and employees need to be reassured about their future. The survivors may be anxious about the criteria used to choose the workers who go through the downsizing hence need to be motivated. Nevertheless, survivors may feel like victims on the receiving end in regards to the workload left for them after the layoff, the fact that they should have new skills for different jobs, and that higher-order and broader responsibilities will be upon them.

Depending on the circumstances in their lives, this may be difficult to cope with hence need to be motivated by streamlining the current work to suit employee capacity. This will cut off the fears and worries that wrap up a layoff (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004)


Cummings, G. & Worley, G. 2005, Organization Development and Change, 8th Ed., Thomson

South-Western, USA

Herbert, T. 1976, Organizational Behavior: Readings and Cases (pp. 344–345). New York:


Jones, G. and George, J. 2004, Essentials of Contemporary Management, Sydney: McGraw-Hill.

Kreitner, R. and Kinicki, A. 2004, 6th ed. Organizational Behavior, Sydney: McGraw-Hill.

Macey, W. & Schneider, B. 2008, the meaning of Employee Engagement. Industrial and

Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.

Shirom, A. 2003, Feeling vigorous at work? The construct of vigor and the study of positive

Affect in organizations. In D. Ganster & P.L. Perrewe (Eds), Research in Organizational

Stress and Well-being (Vol. 3, pp. 135–65). Greenwich, CN: JAI Press.

Papa, M. 2008, Organizational Communication Perspectives and Trends (4th Ed.). Sage


Robbins, P. 2009, Organizational behavior: global and Southern African perspectives. Cape

Town, Pearson Education South Africa.

Wahba, M. & House, R. 1974, Expectancy Theory in Work and Motivation: Some

Logical and Methodological Issues. Human Relations, 27, 121–147.

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