The paper "Hard and Soft System of Change" is a perfect example of management coursework. In the past, it was usual for development projects to collapse soon after their completion. This resulted in interventions by organizations to implement their sustainability. Some of these projects, especially in government institutions, were passed through social systems amongst other social networks (Flood and Carson 1993). It is therefore important to understand the systems approach, their ideas and the differences between soft and hard systems; because various steps are considered when modeling a system. The hard systems should be clearly identified together with the rational elements.
Any subsystem or a super system ought to be noted. Most importantly, there should be a demarcation that defines the inputs and outputs of the system. This could be cumbersome in the current era because the two boundaries could inter-link (Clayton and Radcliffe 1996). Various researchers have identified systems’ theories with two main approaches. These are hard and soft systems. The hard systems are linked to industrial and procedural systems. On the other hand, soft systems are related to human and communal systems (Keys 1991).
Hard systems involve understanding the problem-solving cycle. This commences with defining the setbacks at hand and identifying what needs to be done. Later, objectives are analyzed and procedures aiming at different aims and objectives are devised. This outlines the foundation of contrasting between procedures. The next step is called system synthesis. It involves the identification of multiple and applicable strategies (Banathy 1996). System analysis entails evaluating different imaginary systems in line with the objectives at hand. The best alternative is then chosen through the process of system’ s selection.
Thereafter, the selected option is developed until the trial production phase. Current engineering phase includes comprehending the system, important progression of observing it and supplying information back to the design stage. Finally, the system is adjusted as need be (Jackson 2000). A different way to look at the hard system approach is to focus on the costs and benefits of substitutes programs. First, objectives are defined by explicatory aims and goals. Different related methods are obtained to achieve the objectives. It is important to note the costs to be incurred and the necessary capital to achieve each alternative.
While developing a system model, a logical structure is drawn depicting interdependence of the aims, the systems, organizational setting and existing funds. Lastly, the criteria for selection are developed while interlinking objectives, expenses and assets to choose the most favorable alternative (Checkland and Scholes 1999). Hicks (1991), identifies various problems, which may result when hard systems are applied to soft systems, particularly when they entail human beings. He further confirms that this is because hard systems begin with critical recognition of the aims, problem design and managerial requirements, solving a definite issue in the conditions to which the problem is presented.
With the soft systems, on the other hand, it is not clear what the goals and intentions ought to be. In this case, system perception is upheld as involvement to problem-solving instead of a goal-intended approach. This is applicable in all circumstances if the assignment can or cannot be exclusively and impartially characterized. Prior to designing the service system, it is crucial to identify the responsibilities of the people in it.