Essays on Critical Evaluation of Maslow and Hertzberg Motivational Theories Coursework

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The paper "Critical Evaluation of Maslow and Hertzberg Motivational Theories" is a great example of management coursework.   Motivation is a goal-oriented behavior activation or energisation or willingness to exert more effort (Gallagher & Einhorn, 1976). It is the urge that forces people to act and behave in certain ways. This can come from within or it can be as a result of external influence. If motivation originates from within, it is referred to as intrinsic while if it is as a result of external influence then it is called extrinsic motivation. High educational achievements and enjoyments by students are examples of intrinsic motivation (Lepper, Green, and Nisbett, 1973).

Environmental factors such as being coerced to do something against your will are an example of extrinsic motivation. Workplace conditions such as the amount of salary paid and management policies are also external motivators. Various theories agree that motivation may originate from the basic need to reduce physical pain and increase pleasure or it may involve specific needs (Lepper, Green, and Nisbett, 1973). These specific needs may include resting and eating, or object desired goal, idea, hobby or it may be due reasons which are less apparent such as morality, altruism, avoidance of mortality or selfishness (Gallagher and Einhorn, 1976). A number of motivational theories have been put forward by the motivational theorist.

They include Hertzberg, Erg, McClelland and Maslow motivational theories. These theories have roots from diverse ideologies and philosophies which make each of them be unique. This paper gives an overview of Hertzberg theory and Maslow theory. It will also highlight theoretical and practical strengths and limitations of these two theories. The paper will finally discuss the application of these theories in modern organizations. Overview of Hertzberg and Maslow theories Hertzberg theory This theory was started by Fredrick Hertzberg and it deals with two factors.

It is also referred to as a motivator hygiene theory. Hertzberg stated that the opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction and the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction (Gallagher and Einhorn, 1976). Thus job enrichment (motivator) and de-motivation (hygiene) factors are required for people to move from dissatisfaction to satisfaction. Motivators are intrinsic factors while hygiene is extrinsic factors. Things like autonomy, recognition, freedom, achievements and advancements constitute motivators.

Autonomy in the workplace usually creates confidence among employees. Recognition of accomplishments by employees motivates them to work even harder to be recognized in the future. Physical conditions in the workplace constitute hygiene factors. They include things like administrative efficiency, the relationship between employees, style of supervision and policies of the organization. An organization which fails to recognize employees’ efforts or achievements is most likely to demoralize or de-motivate the employees (Deci, 1972). Maslow theory Maslow motivational theory was postulated by Abraham Maslow. He postulated that human needs are hierarchical and that the behaviour of people is dependent on the lowest un-acquired need.

In this hierarchy, there are five levels of needs. These include physiological needs, security or safety needs, love or sense of belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization need. Physiological needs are found at the lowest level of the hierarchy and they include sex, sleep and hunger (Lepper, Green, and Nisbett, 1973). Without the satisfaction of these needs, the behaviour of people will be directed and dominated by the effort to minimize internal discomfort.

References

Buhler, P.M. Managing in the new millennium: understanding the manager’s motivational tool bag. pp. 20-22.

Deci, E. Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement, and inequity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 22.1 (1972): 113–120.

Gallagher, William & Einhorn, Hillel. Motivation theory and job design. Journal of Business, 49.3 (1976): 358-373

Halepota, H. A., 2005. Motivational theories and their application in construction. Cost Engineering, 47.3 (2005): 14-18.

Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. & Nisbett, R. E. Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the over justification hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 1, (1973): 129-137.

Weightman, Jane. The Employee Motivation Audit. London: Cambridge Strategy Publications, 2008.

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