Essays on Organisational Change and Development Literature review

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The paper "Organisational Change and Development" is a good example of a literature review on management. Change in reference to an organizational context can be defined as a movement from one state to another in response to an opportunity or a threat that can positively or negatively affect the operations of an organization (Kuriger, 2004, p. 1). This is a concept that is pervasive in all organizations owing to a constant rise in the degree of change in the external environment. Organizational change on the other hand refers to a difference in quality, form, or state over time in an organization.

As Kuriger explains, some changes are planned in order to bring efficiency in the operations of an organization or to meet new market demands. At the same time, some changes such as the departure of key personnel or loss of market demand are unplanned. An organizational change can lead to simple changes that alter the way the employees perform their job functions as well as changes that are more dynamic, and which alter the operations of an entire organization.

Whatever the case, a change in an organization usually leads to a change in the organization’ s culture (Kuriger, 2004, p. 1). Hence, employees often believe that the culture introduced after the change may lead to uncomfortable working zones. Such employees tend to be negative about change, an attitude which is evident from their negative responses. At the same time, there are employees who embrace change and thus remain supportive of the change implementation process in an organization. Organizational change management is thus an organizational process that aims at empowering employees to embrace and accept their new business environment after the change (Kuriger, 2004, p.

1). In other words, it is the challenge of managers to deal with the different responses by employees to organizational change. In this regard, this paper gives an overview of the different responses to change that a manager may experience, as outlined in different sources within academic literature.


Boonstra, J. J. (2004) “Resistance to change.” Dynamics of organizational change and learning. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons.

Burke, W. W., Lake, D. G. & Paine, J. W. (2008). “Prevalence of Ambivalent Attitudes.” Organization Change: A Comprehensive Reader. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons.

Graen, G. B. & Graen, J. A. (2009). Making sense of organizational changes: Predator's game changing designs: research-based tools. New York: IAP.

Cheng, C. (2009). Resistance to change: The relationship among employees' work values, job stress, and job satisfaction before and during the privatization of three commercial banks in Taipei, Taiwan. ProQuest, University of the Incarnate Word.

Foster, R. D., (2007), Individual resistance, organizational justice, and employee commitment to planned organizational change, ProQuest, University of Minnesota, US

Kuriger, C. C., (2004) “A systems perspective of organizational change.” Organizational Change: Case Studies in the Real World, Florida: Universal Publishers.

Pasmore, W. A. Woodman, R. W. & Shani, A. B. (ed). (2010). “Response to change.” Research in Organizational Change and Development. Volume 18, Emerald Group Publishing, Bingley UK.

Raoprasert, T. & Islam, S. M. N. (2010). Change management: Designing an Efficient Management System. New York: Springer.

Rashid, Z. A., Sambasivan, M. & Rahman, A. A. (2004). “The influence of organizational culture on altitudes towards organizational change.” Leadership and Organizational Leadership Journal. 25(2): 3-14.

Seijts, G. H. & Robberts, M. (2009). “The impact of employees’ perceptions on change in a municipal government.” Journal of Organizational Change Management. 32(2): 190 209.

Shapiro, D. L. & Kirkman, B. L. (1999). “Employees’ reaction to the change to work teams.” Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(1): 51-67.

Stark, P. B., Jane, F. & Flaherty J. S. (1999). The competent leader: A powerful and practical tool kit for managers & supervisors. Massachusetts: Human Resource Development.

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