The paper 'Organizational Culture and Change Management' is a perfect example of a Management Assignment. It is observed that the background of Organizational Culture and Change Management (OCCM) widely serves to examine the various approaches towards organizational effectiveness basing on their various operations. The evolution defined in OCCM can be traced from the 19th century to the present (Burnes 1998). Understanding the various facets of OCCM that are known to make up the field of management that enables the attainment of organizational theory while at the same time operating in a more dynamic business environment (Sheldrake 1996).
It is through learning this kind of background that this study aims at defining that at all times, the various numerous key proponents of OCCM are reactive in their approaches towards organizational effectiveness. Nevertheless, this does not allow individuals to say that the school of thought does not introduce features of ideology found in management that usually transcend to advance the organization and the approaches to effectiveness within organizations. The classical approach (Scientific Rational approach) which was introduced by Frederick Taylor towards organizational effectiveness is widely focused on internal organizational functions putting a great emphasis on structure and system which are viewed to be key factors towards a successful organization(Burnes 1998).
Here are some of the main principles defined in this school of thought: The only way that is known to be the best while carrying out organizational functions are determined through the use of scientific methods Employees should be highly motivated by financial incentives The best person for a job is that individual who is mentally and physically capable handling that specific task The scientific rationale approach was widely used in the 1890s whereby industrialization of the organization was at its core (McNamara 2011).
With the great use of standardized and regimented task, this approach gave an innovative approach which ensured that organizational personnel understands what they are expected to do. That is the best employee is proven by experimental results. It is quite evident that that classical approach was more focused on a hard approach towards management where organization employees were seen as a source deployed as part to achieve effectiveness. Even with great resistance from those who portrayed it as one which was ill-treating, the scientific approach towards management was gaining its stand in organizations (McLean 2005).
The advocated the participation of employees in the managing of organizations (Boddy 2008) and believed that who better to contribute to the work than those who partake in the work processes themselves, therefore removing the “ science” behind the work process, and encouraging innovation as well as commitment through the use of democracy(McLean 2005). In the year 1880 to1949, Professor George Elton Mayo spearheaded what is currently known as Hawthorne Experiments which came to be in the 1920s’ to carry out research in behavioral patterns of employees within the work environment.
The results of these studies indicated that the Classical approach to efficacy failed to distinguish the human side to management (McLean, 2005). It is important to recognize the human relation approach through:
Boddy, D. 1998 Management: An Introduction. Europe: Prentice Hall.
Burnes, B. 1998. ‘Recipes for Organizational Effectiveness: Mad, Bad, or Just Dangerous to Know’, Career Development International, Vol.3, No.3, pp.100-106.
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Markus, L .2004. Techno change management: Using IT to drive organizational change. Journal of Information Technology, 19 (1), 4-20
McLean, J. 2005 Hard HRM, Human Resource Management. International Study Guide. MDP (UK) Ltd.
McLean, J. 2005. Theorisation, Management Principles. International Study Guide. UK: MDP (UK) Ltd.
McLean, J. 2005. Theorisation, Management Principles. International Study Guide. MDP (UK) Ltd.
McLean, J.2005. Theorisation, Management Principles. International Study Guide. MDP (UK) Ltd.
McNamara, C. 2011 Very Brief History of Management Theories: Scientific Management Theory. Retrieved from: http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/history.htm
Sheldrake, John. 1996. Management Theory: From Taylorism to Japanization. Oxford: Alden Press.
Steinwachs, K .1999. Information and culture- the impact of national culture on information processes. Journal of Information Science, 25 (3), 193-204.
Watson, T.1986. Management Organisation and Employment Strategy: New Directions I Theory and Practice. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Cited in Burnes, B. (1998) The Culture Excellence Approach, In Search of Excellence. International Study Guide. MDP (UK) Ltd.