Essays on Organizational Culture and How This Affects an Organizations Effectiveness Literature review

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The paper "Organizational Culture and How This Affects an Organization’ s Effectiveness" is a wonderful example of a literature review on management. This paper presents an analysis of how culture is expressed in the organization and the subsequent impacts on an organization’ s effectiveness. Organizational culture is defined as the cohesion of shared ideologies, values, philosophies, beliefs, attitudes, and norms in an organization leading to shared meaning, behaviors, and activities (Herzog & Leker, 2007; Inceoglu, 2002; Alvesson, 2002). It is expressed in various ways implying that culture is something an organization is and has.

This subject has also been explored with reference to corporate culture, focusing on the role of culture as a central determinant of financial performance as well as an organizational strategic driver. Organizational or corporate culture has been described as the ultimate strategic asset (Flamholtz & Randle, 2011). In contemporary business and financial competition, there is a rising emphasis on managers on the importance of the resource-based view (RBV) management approach. This is an approach in which management focuses on organizational resources that are difficult to be imitated by competitors. Human resource is the most prominent element of RBV.

Interestingly, human resources stand out in the development, expressing, and changing organizational culture. As such, it is vital that management gets a clear understanding of the way culture is expressed in organizational behavior and the way this expression has implications in performance management. In contemporary globalized situations where market-driven change is constant, this knowledge is vital as culture largely influences how organizations adapt to market needs. Organizational culture is expressed in various ways, processes, and outcomes. Essentially, it is expressed at three core different levels of engagement: surface-level espoused values and basic assumptions.

The surface level refers to the physical environment and the visible aspects of an organization. These include products, language, and symbols. The espoused values refer to the leadership values and the way this relates to organizational mission, vision, and subsequent strategies. The level of basic assumption is the most intimate level as it refers to attitudes, perceptions, and thoughts of the members.


Alvesson, M. (2002). Understanding organizational culture. London: Sage.

Ashkanasy, N., Wilderom, C., & Peteson, M. (. (2011). Handbook of organizational culture and climate (2nd Ed). Los Angeles: Sage.

Augustin, S., & Brand, J. (2011). Impact of physical environment on knowledge worker performance. Amsterdam: Haworth Inc.

Berson, Y., Oreg, S., & Dvir, T. (2007). CEO values, organizational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of organizational behavior, 29, 615-633.

Elsbach, K., & Bechky, B. (2007). It's More Than a Desk: Working Smarter Through Leveraged Office Design. California Management Review, 49 (2).

Ferrell, O., Fraedich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2011). Business ethics : ethical decision making and cases (8th ed.). Mason: South-Western Cengage.

Flamholtz, E., & Randle, Y. (2011). Corporate culture : the ultimate strategic asset. Stanford: Stanford Business Books.

Herzog, P., & Leker, J. (2007). Open and closed innovation different cultures for different strategies. Wiesbaden Gabler.

Inceoglu, I. (2002). Organizational culture, team climate, workplace bullying and team effectiveness : an empirical study on their relationship. Munchen: Herbert Utz Verlag Wissenschaft.

Jex, S. (2002). Organizational psychology : a scientist-practitioner approach. New York: Wiley.

Kark, R., Shamir, B., & Chen, G. (2003). The two faces of transformational leadership: empowerment and dependency. Journal of applied psychology, 88, 246-255.

Kopelman, R., Prottas, D., Davis, A., & Depot, T. (2008). Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y: Toward a construct-valid measure. Journal of managerial issues, 20 (2), 225-271.

Nelson, D., & Quick, J. (2011). Organizational behavior : science, the real world, and you (7th Ed). Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning.

O'Toole, K. (2001). Learning through the physical environment in the workplace. International Education Journal, 2 (1), 10-19.

Scott, T., Mannion, R., Davies, H., & Marshall, M. (2003). Healthcare performance and organisational culture. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press.

Tharp, B. (2009). Diagnosing organizational culture. Amsterdam: Haworth Inc. Retrieved from Haworth.

Transit Cooperative Research Program. (2003). Corporate culture as the driver of transit leadership practices. Washington, D.C: Transportation Research Board.

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