The paper 'Organization Behavior Motivation' is a perfect example of a Management Case Study. Motivation theories seek to explain how and even why human behavior is activated. The theories can be categorized into two broad classes: content and process theories. Content theories explain what motivates people and it focuses on individual goals and needs. Content theories include theories from Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland, and Alderfer. Process theories are those theories that explain how motivation occurs. They include theories from Vroom, Locke, Porter, and Adams. This essay will focus on the motivational models of Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, and Adams and the similarities and differences of these theories.
It will also discuss how a manager could apply each of these theories to help reduce the problems of involuntary absenteeism in the workplace. 2.0 Motivation Theories 2.1 Abraham Maslow’ s Hierarchy of Needs. According to Mullins (2005), needs are divided into five levels and people seek to satisfy higher needs when their lower needs have already been fulfilled. When a lower need is fully satisfied, it ceases to be a motivation for human behavior. Needs can only be a source of motivation if they are not satisfied.
First level needs are known as physiological needs and they include food, air, and water. The 2nd level needs are known as safety or security needs and they include health, job safety, well being, and safety against work accidents and protection against emotional harm. The third level needs are known as social needs. This is the need to feel a sense of belonging, to be loved, and to be accepted. Individuals satisfy through affection, friendship, family, and acceptance. The fourth level needs are known as self-esteem needs.
This is the need to have self-respected and to be respected by others. This need provides satisfaction in terms of self-confidence, achievement, power, recognition, attention, and prestige status. The highest level need is known as self-actualization need. It is the drive to realize one's full potential. This can be through growth, self-fulfillment, and achieving one's potential (notes, 2012). 2.2 Alderfer’ s ERG Theory Alderfer simplified the hierarchy of needs by Maslow by categorizing them into 3 broad classes known as ERG, where E stands for Existence needs, R stands for Relatedness needs as well as G for Growth needs.
Existence needs are the same as the Physiological and security needs of Maslow’ s theory while relatedness needs are the same as to social and esteem needs by Maslow. Growth needs are those needs that relate to achieving one’ s full potential and they are similar to Self-actualization needs by Maslow’ s. 2.3 Herzberg’ s Two Factor Theory According to Akrani (2010), Herzberg argued that there are two factors that affect motivation and they do so in different ways. The first set of factors is known as hygiene factors.
This refers to those factors that cause dissatisfaction if an employee views them as inequitable or inadequate. However, adequacy of these factors does not significantly motivate the employees. That means that the presence of these factors means that employees are simply not dissatisfied but not satisfied. These factors are intrinsic and they involve job security, remuneration, working conditions, and company policy, and job security. The other set of factors is known as motivators. These are factors that affect satisfaction and they include recognition, achievement, growth, advancement, and responsibility.
If these factors are inadequate, they prevent job satisfaction but contribute very little to job satisfaction. Therefore, when these factors are present, employees tend to be satisfied but the absence of these factors leaves employees not satisfied and not necessarily dissatisfied (Mullins, 1996).
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