Essays on Extrinsic Motivation Analysis Essay

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Extrinsic Motivation Analysis" is a great example of a management essay.   Motivation is the scientific study aiming at getting an in-depth view of “ why the people behave the way they do” (Pinder 1998, p. 22). Brooks (2009) gives a simple definition of motivation as the willingness of an individual to perform. It is therefore a type of force from within an individual that normally affects a person’ s actions and efforts. However, this definition might not be adequate. Amabile’ s definition gives a more precise and clear approach to motivation. He describes “ it as a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’ s being, to initiate work-related behavior and to determine its form, direction, intensity and duration” (Amabile, 1996, p. 17).

This definition clearly points out intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation as the two main types of motivation. Intrinsic motivation originates from the individual himself/herself while extrinsic motivation originates from external forces. An extrinsically motivated person is compelled to do a task basically because the results are accompanied by consequences that can either be positive or negative (Deci & Ryan, 2008, p. 23).

Extrinsic motivation requires an intermediary between the task and a separate reward. This has an implication that the activity does not drive an individual to work but rather the attached tangible reward (Gagne & Deci, 2005, p. 56). The tangible reward can be financial, material, or social character. All these rewards originate from an external environment. An intrinsically motivated person is driven by the activity itself which he or she finds it to be interesting and is accompanied by satisfaction (Deci & Ryan 2008, p. 43). Buelens et al. (2010, p. 227) argue that an individual who finds an activity pleasurable is said to be motivated intrinsically.

Amabile (1996) regards intrinsic motivation as that expression of interest, commitment, inclusiveness and satisfaction. In a similar way, Calder and Staw (1975: 39) perceive an intrinsically motivated person like that who is motivated to do a task because he or she values it.

References

Amabile, T, 1996. Creativity in context, Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.

Ariely, D., Gneezy, U., Loewenstein, G. & Mazar, N. 2009. Large Stakes and Big Mistakes, Review of economic studies,76(2):451-469.

Bem, D. 1967. Self- Perception: an Alternative Interpretation of Cognitive Dissonance Phenomena. Psychology review, 4(3):183-200

Brooks, I. 2009. Organizational behavior: individuals, groups and organizations. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Buelens, M., Sinding, K. & Waldstrom, 2010, Organizational behavior, special edition for Aarhus school of business and social science. Glasgow: Bell and Bain Ltd.

Calder, B. J. & Staw, B. M., 1975. Interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Some methodological notes. Journal of personality and social psychology, 31(1): 76-80

Cameron, J. & Pierco, W. 1994. Reinforcement, Reward and Intrinsic motivation: A Meta- Analysis. Review of educational research, 64(3): 363- 423

Condry, J. 1977. Enemies of exploration: self-initiated verses other-initiated learning. Journal of personality and social psychology, 35(7): 459-477

Crino , M. & White, M. 1982. Feedback effects in intrinsic/extrinsic reward paradgrims,. Journal of management, 8(2): 95-108.

Daniel, P. The puzzle of motivation.

De Charms, R. 1968. Personal Causation: The internal affective determinants of behavior. New York and London: Academic Press.

Deci, E. & Ryan R. 2008. Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains, Canadian psychology, 49(1): 14-23

Deci, E. 1971. Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation, Journal of personality and social Psychology, 18(1): 105-115

Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of abnormal psychology, 58(2): 203-210

Festinger, L. 1975. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Illinois: Peterson.

Gagne, M. & Deci, E. 2005. Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of organizational behavior, 26(4): 331-362.

Glucksberg, S. 1962. The influence of strength of drive on functional fixedness and perceptual recognition. Journal of experimental psychology, 63(1): 36-41

Harlow, H. 1950. Learning and satiation of response in intrinsically motivated complex puzzle performance by monkeys. Journal of comparative and physiological psychology, 43(4): 289-294

Hull, C. 1943. Principles of behavior, An introduction to behavior theory. New York:.Appleton- Century- Crofts.

Kohn, A. 1999. Punished by rewards: the trouble of gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise and other bribes, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Kruglanski, A. W, Stein, C. & Rita. 1977. Contingencies of Exogenous reward and task performance: on the minimax strategy in instrumental behavior. Journal of applied social psychology, 8(6): 493-501

Pinder C. 1998. Work motivation in organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us