Performance management system is one of the most crucial components of the organisational human resource management map. A competitive advantage for a winning organisation is based on a robust system of performance management and its alignment to the vision and strategic objectives of the organisation. This report focuses on performance management of various organisations based on four case studies: Diagnosing the Causes of Poor Performance; Diagnosing the Causes of Poor Performance; Choosing a Performance Measurement Approach at Paychex, Inc; and Deliberate Practice Makes Perfect. Diagnosing the Causes of Poor PerformanceHeather’s poor performance is related to a deficiency in declarative knowledge.
As a firm, one of the most valuable assets is knowledge where it is possessed and developed internally by individuals within the firm. According to McCall, Arnold, and Sutton (2008), the main challenge is how to capture, store, retain as well as share knowledge which the professionals in the firm possess. They note that knowledge is power, but if that knowledge is not managed adequately, there could be devastating consequences for the firm. The main ideas are to capture knowledge, convert personal knowledge to the knowledge available to the group, connect people to knowledge and vice versa and measure the knowledge and understand its evolution (McCall, Arnold, and Sutton, 2008, 78).
Procedural knowledge involves the ability of an individual to apply as well as extend declarative knowledge and this knowledge is acquired through experience (Anderson 1993). With procedural knowledge, an individual knows how to do something, for example, in the case study Heather knows well how to design a training class, how to incorporate behavioural modelling as well as practice in the class and what learners needs to know in order to be successful.
However, Heather is not able to explain to the learners how this is done. Thus, she had procedural knowledge which is seen as an explicit learning where the learners may not be aware of and in turn, they may be able to use what she is teaching without being able to explain what they are doing. On the other hand, Smither, & London (2009) refers to the factual knowledge and information in which an individual knows. The learners in the case study seems to have been trained how to do things within the firm, but in real sense, the way they are asking Heather questions shows that they don’t have attention to what they are doing or why they are doing it.
It means that the learners are not able to store information such as examples of previous issues in the firm then try to use strategy for solving problems from such examples. From the case study, lack of such examples has resulted to lack of acquisition of declarative knowledge.
After lack of adequate acquiring of declarative knowledge, the individual may not move well into procedural stage because of lack of putting the factual information into practice, a factor that hinders an individual to gains skills for transforming declarative knowledge into procedural. Based on the case study, the learners have been trained how to do things within the firms (procedural knowledge), but in real sense, they cannot be able to actually the processes required in order to do it (declarative knowledge).