The paper "What Constitutes Performance Management" is a great example of management coursework. Performance management is a process through which targets and objectives for teams and individuals in an organization, and the regular evaluation of actual achievement and expected to reward for achieving the target. The process has to make sure that team and individual effort support the organizational objectives as well as making sure the main stakeholder's expectations are realized by looking at the key drivers. From this concept of performance management, it is deduced that planning is crucial, expectations of stakeholders are key drivers of performance management, employee and management buy-in and involvement are crucial, and key targets and objectives have to be linked to corporate strategy as explained by Cardy (2003).
Performance management has to incorporate planning performance, maintaining performance, maintaining performance, reviewing performance, and finally rewarding performance. The planning has to involve a formal development plan for the workers. The plan has to be developed with regard to requisite skills, knowledge and behaviors that are needed to achieve the set targets and objectives. Training activities have to be based on the performance gaps that exist realized during maintenance of performance.
Varma, Budhwar and DeNisi (2008) observe that Performance management systems have played an important role in the process of employee appraisal to determine the gaps in skills and knowledge in order to come up with an effective training plan. This essay explores performance management systems in Non-Government Organization with the aim of ensuring effective delivery of service to target clients. Discussion What constitutes performance management? Performance management is the process through which clear targets and objectives for teams and objectives, and the continuous evaluation of actual accomplishment and rewarding for target achieved.
The process has to ensure that team and individual effort support or complements the objectives of the organization and main stakeholder expectations are often realized through focusing on key value drivers. Performance management is concerns the establishment of a culture where teams and individuals take responsibility for continuous improvement with regard to service delivery and the personal skills, contributions and behavior (Weatherly, 2004). Performance management is a strategic process that is long term in nature that target to develop an appropriate culture connecting service issues, people management and long term goals.
It should not be a once-off quick-fix process. It is a process that ensures effective management that results in teams and individuals understanding organizational expectations and ability to deliver on the expectations (Banfield & Kay, 2012). Performance management is important to an NGO to ensure quality service delivery to target clients. There is the tendency to lapse into laxity since most of the money used to run NGOs come from grants and donations and besides they do not aim to make profits. Strategic improvement with regard to performance management system refers to the realization of long-term organizational goals and objective within the set time.
This system has to ensure that the NGO achieves its strategic goals within the anticipated time. Performance management constitutes of five elements that include the agreement of employee unit and organizational goals; measurement, feedback, dialogue and positive reinforcement. These constituent elements that will be incorporated in the performance management system of the NGO will make sure that the process of performance management is successful, positive and results in employee improvement.
Important characteristics of the process of performance management are continuous assessment and feedback. In the course of performance management, employers offer continuous appraisal via feedback and re-alignment of goals basing on performance (Weatherly, 2004). Majority of performance management systems are designed in order to meet the changing needs of both the employee and the organization. Performance assessment can include: identification of any shortfalls in the achievement of objectives or meeting set standards; dialogue about what the employee has done or accomplished; finding out any reasons for shortfalls like changed settings; agreeing to effect any changes needed to accomplish the objectives in the changed circumstances; and to agree to any measures needed by the manager or the individual in order to improve performance (Ghorpade, 2000).
The ongoing communication loop in the course of performance management assists organizations in meeting both organizational goals and meeting the needs of the employees.
Amatayakul, M. 2005, EHR? Assess readiness first, Healthcare Financial Management, 59,112–113.
Armenakis, A.A., & Harris, S.G. 2002, Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15, 169–183.
Banfield, P., & Kay, R. 2012, Introduction to Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, London.
Bernthal, P, Rogers, R.W & Smith, A. 2003, Managing Performance – Building Accountability for Organisational Success, Development Dimensions International, Pittsburg, PA.
Cardy, R. L. 2003, Performance management: Concepts, skills, and exercises, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.
DeNisi, A. S., & Kluger, A. N. 2000, Feedback effectiveness: Can 360-degree appraisals be improved? Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 129-139.
Erdogan, B. 2002, Antecedents and consequences of justice perceptions in performance appraisals, Human Resource Management Review, 12, 555–578.
Gabris, G. T., & Ihrke, D. M. 2001, Does performance appraisal contribute to heightened levels of employee burnout? The results of one study, Public Personnel Management, 30, 157–172.
Ghorpade, J. 2000, Managing the five paradoxes of 360-degree feedback, Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 140-150.
Greguras, G. J., Robie, C., Schleicher, D. J., & Goff, M. 2003, A field study of the effects of rating purpose on the quality of multisource ratings, Personnel Psychology, 56, 1-21.
Hernandez, R.S., 2009, Strategic Human Resources Management in Health Services Organizations, Cengage Learning, New York.
Lee, J., Havigurst, L. C., & Rassel, G. 2004, Factors related to court references to performance appraisal fairness and validity, Public Personnel Management, 33(1), 61-78.
London, M., & Smither, J. W. 2002, Feedback orientation, feedback culture, and the longitudinal performance management process, Human Resource Management Review, 12, 81–100.
Pierce, C. A., Aguinis, H., & Adams, S. K. R. 2000, Effects of a dissolved workplace romance and rater characteristics on responses to a sexual harassment accusation, Academy of Management Journal, 43, 869–880.
Varma, A., Budhwar, P.S., DeNisi, A.S., 2008, Performance Management Systems: A Global Perspective, Taylor & Francis, New York.
Weatherly, L. A. 2004, Performance management: Getting it right from the start, SHRM Research Quarterly, 2, 1-10.