The paper 'Utilitarian and Kantian Analysis of Chocolate Unwrapped" is a great example of a business case study. The essay aims at providing a decision on whether the Australian chocolate company can enter into a valid contract with a cocoa broker in Cote D’ Ivoire. Several issues are addressed like child labor, unfair working conditions, exploitation and adverse terms of safety and health of children. Under Act Utilitarianism, children should be exploited in the cocoa fields as long as they can provide free labor, provided with food which they are lucky to have and kept away from the battleground.
The utilitarian rule goes in favor of the cocoa broker who is seen as a better alternative by the children for providing food and security (Rwomire, 2001). In the Kantian analysis, Kant insists on people doing the moral duty by arguing that no individual should be used as a means to an end. The merchant should take in the children as students who need schooling and not labor. His thoughts are directed to the intentions of the person. The coffee merchant’ s intentions are not to save the children from vagaries of war but to exploit them and maximize his profits.
Kant takes a rational view of morality and is opposed to the Utilitarian dimension of the end justifies the means (Wood, 2009). The essay recommends that the organization should not enter into the contract with the broker from Cote D’ Ivoire. This is because by agreeing to enter into the contract, it would be tantamount to accepting the actions of the broker. Ethical Issues Child Labor Child labor is an ethical issue that is conspicuous in the chocolate unwrapped case.
Children who should be in school are working in Cocoa fields in Cote D’ Ivoire. They have limited knowledge and experience in their roles and responsibilities. The level of understanding of work does not match that of the employer. Bass (2004) observes that children especially those between five and ten years are too young to comprehend production processes, productivity targets and rational decisions. The legal considerations in employment stipulate entering into contracts with people who have come of age and of sound mind. In the Cote D’ Ivoire, the children are not eligible to enter employment agreements as they are unfit and incapable of making decisions on their own.
Children need basic and secondary education upon which they can enter into the employment of their choice (Herumin, 2008; Clarke, 2002). Rwomire (2001) notes that child labor is forced employment in stringent violation of their right to education, basic and emotional needs. The government of Cote D’ Ivoire has lost control of its leadership structures hence allowing rogue entrepreneurs and merchants to violate the rights of women and children. The International Labor Organization (ILO) convention on the minimum age for admission to work and employment is 14 years.
At fourteen or fifteen years, children will have finished compulsory schooling. For hazardous work, the minimum age must be 18 years since the work is likely to endanger the child’ s mental, physical, moral health and safety (Bass, 2004; Herumin 2008). At the ages of 12-14 years, children may be allowed to do light work which is not threatening to the safety and health or hindering their training, vocational orientation or education.
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Bass, L.E. (2004). Child Labor in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
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Herumin, W. (2008). Child Labor Today: A Human Rights Issue. Enslow Publishers.
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Rwomire, A. (2001). African Women and Children: Crisis and Response. Greenwood Publsihing Group.
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Conventions and Acts
Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138).
The Fair Work Act of 2009
Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No.182)