The paper 'The Impact of Organization Culture on Performance in the National Water Company' is a great example of a Management Literature Review. My Ph. D. research proposal is designed to examine the impact of organizational culture on performance in the National Water Company (NWC) in the Kingdome of Saudi Arabia. This paper critically reviews the research design and methodology used in five articles that focus on organizational culture and performance. A quantitative methodology based on this review will be employed in the completion of the study. A survey will be conducted among 200 employees from different levels in the organizational hierarchy.
This essay will also use the literature review of these five articles as part of the research methodology. It will begin with a summary of each article to provide a background on the research, an introduction to the research design, data collection and sources, understand why the particular method was used, and finally analyze the studies according to research techniques and methods used. The research design will focus on the research sample, research perspective, and the rigor of the research design. Background Data collection and sources focus on the validity and reliability of the research and finally, the analytical methods will focus on the type and purpose of analysis.
In quantitative research, reliability refers to the ability to replicate the same information if another study was carried at different times under the same or similar methods. It shows internal consistencies and accounts for research objectivities (Neuman 2011). A reliability test is conducted to ensure errors and biases in a study are minimized. On the other hand, validity in quantitative research refers to the extent to which a measure accurately represents the concept in claims to investigate (Suppiah and Sandhu 2010).
It can either be internal or external depending on whether it addresses “ the ability to apply with confidence the findings of the study to other people and other situations” or “ the reasons for the outcomes of the study” respectively (Roberts et al 2006). Reliability for the studies under review has been tested and with the high reliability, the data in each has been deemed fit for further analysis. The statistical analysis of the collected data tested both the reliability and the validity of the data and the instruments used to collect the data.
However, none of the studies under review mention or discuss the impact that practical limitations such as time, cost, or limited access to resources may have had on the research (Neuman 2011). Without knowing whether the researchers considered such doubts, the impacts regarding credibility will remain. Data analysis involves the examination, categorization, tabulation, or otherwise recombining evidence with intent to draw an empirically based conclusion (Neuman 2011). Evaluation of the analytical methods helps in determining as to whether credibility has been achieved, and thus aspects such as type and purpose of analysis are considered. Methodology Literature review The articles identified for this analysis focus on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance.
Understanding of organizational culture is central in adopting a greater emphasis on change, entrepreneurialism, flexibility, efficiency, outcomes, and productivity in organizations (Parker and Bradley 2000). In another study by Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari (2003), a significant correlation between corporate culture and organizational commitment has been noted. Further, cultural innovation plays a mediating role in the correlation between organizational culture and firm performance (Uzkurt, Kumar, Kimzan and Eminoglu 2013; Ramachandran, Chong and Ismail 2011).
All these studies employ only quantitative methodologies and their analysis concentrates on the quantitative concepts within the context in which they explain the correlation.
List of References
Fink, A. 2010. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: from the Internet to Paper, 3rd ed, Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Neuman, W. 2011. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 7th ed. Needham Heights. Pearson Education Ltd,
Parker, R. and Bradley, L., 2000. Organizational culture in the public sector: Evidence from six organizations. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 13(2), pp.125-141.
Ramachandran, SD., Chong, SD. and Ismael, H., 2011. Organizational culture: An exploratory study comparing faculties’ perspectives within public and private universities in Malaysia. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(6), pp. 615-634.
Rashid, ZA., Sambasivan, M. and Johari, J., 2003. The influence of corporate culture and organizational commitment on performance. Journal of Management Development, 22(8), pp 708-728.
Roberts P et al, 2006. Reliability and Validity in Research. Nursing Standard. 20 (44), pp.41-45.
Suppiah, V. and Sandhu, MJ., 2010. Organisational culture’s influence on tacit knowledge-sharing behavior, Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(3), pp 462-477.
Uzkurt, C., Kumar, R. Kimzan, HS. and Eminoglu, G., 2013. Role of innovation in the relationship between organizational culture and firm performance: A study of the banking sector in Turkey. European Journal of innovation management, 16(1), pp. 92-117.