1.0 IntroductionThe construction industry requires specific understanding of specific technology in succeeding in completion of a building. Thus, the aim of this report is to analyze construction of a building through understanding the site conditions, substructure, superstructures and roofs. 2.0 Site Conditions 2.1 Soil Type & ConstraintsCondition of the ground that a building should be constructed plays a paramount role in determining the success of the building. Conditions range from the basic nature of environment to codes and regulations that are set to guide the construction process. The type of soil in the site determines approach that will be used to support the building because of its load holding capability, drainage capabilities and environmental impact.
The nature of site is controlled by previous activities that the ground was used for e. g. deposit site for wastes. This calls upon appropriate measures to ensure that the building would be supported. For example, sand and gravel have good drainage capabilities while clay and black soils have poor drainage capabilities. Nevertheless, the site of construction is guided and controlled by constraints: such as statutory directives and municipality or local authority descriptions plus adjacent building.
Building in the city centre requires different conditions compared to building in a secluded region e. g. rural areas. Moreover, the construction requires services such as sewage and electricity, which have to be fulfilled before construction begins. 2.2 Temporary and False WallsGenerally, false work are the temporary structures that are used in building construction and are used to supported arched or spanning structures for a period that will enable the building to sufficiently support itself. The temporary or false works includes scaffolding and formwork that is used to mould concrete to give a desired shape.
Figure 1 (below) shows a door spanning that is supported by false work to support the concrete beam. Figure 1: Door spanning supported by metal false work (sketch)2.3 Retaining WallsA retaining wall is a structure that is used to hold back soil from a construction area. These walls prevent erosion and support any vertical changes that may occur. Originally, the most favored approach towards achieving the requirements of retaining walls was poured-in-place walls but has been replaced new types of retaining walls.
Construction of the retaining walls put into consideration retaining material from moving down slope or forward because of gravity. The aim of the retaining walls is to ensure that lateral earth pressure is put behind that wall that depends on cohesive strength, angle of internal friction of the retained material and the magnitude and direction of movement that the retaining wall undergoes. Retaining walls are grouped into modes of operation e. g., gravity walls and cantilever walls as shown in figure 2. Figure 2: Retaining walls 2.4 Ground stabilization Ground stabilization is an act that ensures that the location of construction is stable and can withstand any movements that can occur or ensure that the soil/ ground can support the building.
Original approach towards making the ground stable was through compaction and adding rocks and harder materials into the ground. However, technological advancement has made introduction of metallic appliances such as mesh into the soil to aid ensuring stability of the building.