The paper "Project Planning, Management, and Control" is a good example of a literature review on category. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® 2004) defines the term project as follows: “ A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result” . (p. 1) The term project is associated with three distinguishing characteristics, (1) temporary, (2) unique product, services, or results, and (3) progressive elaboration. The first characteristic refers to the nature of the project which is temporary. Every project has a definite beginning and definite end (PMBOK® 2004). It has to go through the project life cycle phases, namely (1) initiating, (2) planning, (3) implementing, (4) monitoring, (5) evaluating, and (6) closing.
These are essential phases for the entire project life cycle. One phase of success is influenced by the success of the preceding phase. For example, the success of planning depends on the success of initiating. Similarly, the success of monitoring is dependent on the success of implementing it. Therefore, every project has its unique process from the initiating phase thorough its last phase of closing. In the last phase of the project, the objectives set at the beginning are known as the project has achieved or not achieved.
Then the project has to be closed, terminated, or extended. However, it must be noticed that the temporary nature does not mean that the time is short. In some cases, a project may last for several years too. The second characteristic of the project is a unique product, services, or results. A project can produce unique products, services, or results (PMBOK® 2004). A project is said to produce a deliverable output which is a quantifiable and measure product or is a service such as business production or distribution.
A project is also said to produce results such as documents for knowledge of the production of new cars. The third characteristic of the project is progressive elaboration (PMBOK® 2004). The project may have a wide and broad definition of project scope definition in the beginning. In the later stages, it will be progressively elaborated to define the scope of more details.
Belassi, W. and O. Tukel. 1996. A new framework for determining critical success/failure factors in projects. International Journal of Project Management Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 141-151,
Cooper, J.M. (2000) Collaborative communication: six building blocks for conversations that make things happen. In: Proceedings of the Project Management Institute Annual Seminars and Symposium, PMI, September 7–16, 2000, Houston, Texas, USA.
Johnson, J.D. (1993) Organizational Communication Structure. Ablex Publishing, Norwood, NJ.
Johnson, J.D., Donohue, W.A., Atkin, C.K., and Johnson, S. (1994) Differences between formal and informal communication channels, Journal of Business Communication 31(2).
Kraut, R.E. and Streeter, L.A. (1995) Coordination in software development. Communication of the ACM 38(3).
Mead, R. (1990) Cross-Cultural Management Communication. John Wiley, Chichester.
Morand, D.A. (1995) The role of behavioral formality and informality in the enactment of bureaucratic versus organic organizations. Academy of Management Review 20(4), 831.
Müller R. 2003. Communication of information technology project sponsors and sellers in buyer–seller relationships, DBA Thesis. UK: Henley Management College, Henley-on-Thames.
Mullins, L.J. (1999) The nature of organisations. In Management and Organisational Behaviour (5th edn), ed. L.J. Mullins.Financial Times Management, London.
Munns, A. K. and B F Bjeirmi. 1996. The role of project management in achieving project success. International Journal of Project Management Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 81-87.
PMI. 2000. Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Project Management Institute, Newton Square, PA.
Turner JR, Müller R. 2003. On the nature of the project as a temporary organization. Int J Project Manage 2003; 21.
Turner JR, Müller R. 2003a. Communication and cooperation on projects between the project owner as principal and the project manager as agent. In: Huemann M, editors. Proceedings of the Research Conference Vienna X, Vienna: Project Management Group, University of Economics and Business Administration; October 2003.
Turner, J. R. 2004. Five necessary conditions for project success. International Journal of Project Management 22: 349–350
Ward, S. C. 1999. Assessing and managing important risks. International Journal of Project Management Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 331-336,
Wateridge, J. F. 1995. IT projects: a basis for success. Int J Project Manage 1995;13(3):169–72.