Essays on Coastal and Marine Pollution in Australia Case Study

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The paper "Coastal and Marine Pollution in Australia" is an outstanding example of an environmental studies case study. The environment plays a significant role in the health, development and livelihoods of people, animals and plants in the planet. Due to varied natural and manmade factors, the environment has largely been compromised which has, in turn, generated adverse effects. Among areas that have been hard hit by environmental changes are the coastal and marine systems. In Australia, coastal and marine pollution is one of the major pollution issues which needs prompt actions in order to ensure the sustainability of coastal and marine networks which are now under threat of extinction.

The study, therefore, seeks to explicitly analyze why the problem exists, who are the main bearers of the costs of the problem and identify effective policy solutions to address the problem. Introduction Modern industrial environments are characterized by rapid establishment of industries, rapid population growth rates, enhanced transfer of information, products, services, technology and processes from one global point to another and improved quality of products and services produced and delivered to modern global consumers.

This has helped increase global growth, improve commercial profitability and more importantly has ensured that the needs, demands, tastes, preferences and expectations of modern consumers are effectively and efficiently satisfied. Nevertheless, these improvements and gains generated have come at a price on the global environment. William, (2010) notes that as industries flourish, they require more and more natural resources such as land, water, minerals and energy as raw materials and as valuable resources to help in the production of products. This has led to massive exploitation and depletion of the large volume of natural resources, increased wastage and extreme pollution on essential utilities such as land, air and water as both people and industries seek to better their livelihoods and improve the quality of products and services respectively (Wilder, 1998). These extreme effects on resources has led to adverse effects of global warming, diminishing coastal and marine life, melting mountain glaciers which leads to a rise in the height of sea levels, soil erosion, deforestation which leads to climatic changes associated with persistent droughts and famines, which all, in turn, impact negatively on plant and animal life on earth as we know it.

The report will candidly analyze coastal and marine pollution as a major pollution issue in Australia and through an economic overview, examine why the problem exists. In addition, the report will identify which groups bear the costs of coastal and marine pollution in Australia, what some of the policy solutions are and evaluate the economic costs and benefits of implementing different policy solutions. Benefits gained from Coastal and Marine Systems in Australia According to (D. S.E. W.P. C., 2011), Australian coastal waters sustain substantial and fundamental ecosystems such as seagrasses, sea animals such as fishes, dolphins, invertebrates and macroalgal reef habitation among others.

They also generate rich areas for habitation, nurturing and harvesting of commercial fishes among other seafood. The coastal and marine life generate a substantial amount of foreign and domestic revenues for the Australian Federal government through tourism as tourists come to visit the Australian coast to enjoy the serene coastal and marine life and at the same, engaging in recreational activities such as surfing and swimming among other activities (Williams, 1996).

References

Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA). “Oil Spills in the Australian Marine Environment: Environmental Consequences and Response Technologies." Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Accessed from http://www.amsa.gov.au/marine_environment_protection/national_plan/Contingency_Plans_and_Management/Research_Development_and_Technology/paper33.pdf on the 16th Sept 2011.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. (D.S.E.W.P.C) 2011. Marine pollution. Accessed from http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/pollution/index.html on the 16th Sept 2011.

Hassan, D. 2006. Protecting the marine environment from land-based sources of pollution: towards effective international cooperation. London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Hofer, T.N. 2008. Marine pollution: new research. Sidney: Nova Publishers.

Kaly, U.L. 2004. Review of Land-based sources of pollution to the coastal and marine environments in the BOBLME Region. BOBLME Theme report, Accessible from http://www.boblme.org/documentRepository/Theme_%20Land%20Based%20Pollution%20-%20%20Urusla%20Kaly.pdf

Sheavly, S. B. & Register, K. M. 2007. Marine debris and plastics: Environmental concerns, sources, impacts and solutions. Journal of Polymers & the Environment, 15(4), 301-305.

UNEP, UNEP, & GPACO. 2006. Protecting coastal and marine environments from land-based activities: a guide for national action. Nairobi: UNEP/Earthprint.

White, M.W.D. 2007. Australasian marine pollution laws. Queensland: Federation Press.

Wilder, R. J. 1998. Listening to the Sea: The Politics of Improving Environmental Protection. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

William, R. 2010. A New Shade of Green. Wall Street Journal, pp R1, R4.

Williams, C. 1996. Combating marine pollution from land-based activities: Australian initiatives. Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 33, Issues 1-3, Pages 87-112. doi:10.1016

WWF. 2011. Marine pollution and debris. Accessible from http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/saving_the_natural_world/oceans_and_marine/marine_threats/pollution/

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