The paper "Stereotype Threat Experiences, Active Listening" is an outstanding example of a management assignment. Stereotype threat can be explained as a self-confirming belief that arises in a situational predicament where an individual or individuals feel that they can be evaluated on the basis of a negative stereotype (Beilock, Rydell & McConnell, 2007). Every individual has a negative stereotype which if the individual is reminded of that negative stereotype, it raises the individual’ s anxiety which in turn disrupts the individuals thought processes thereby affecting the individual’ s performance in this case students are the most affected.
In case an individual encounters many repeated stereotype threat experiences, this can cause the individual to lose confidence, loss of interest and poor performance in the individual’ s area of interest (Good, Aronson & Inzlicht, 2003). The ladder of inference was proposed by Chris Argyris in 1970, it provides a way of describing how individuals through a sequence of mental processes move from raw data that involves either something seen, heard or a comment said to you and translates the data into a conclusion. Every individual’ s beliefs have a tendency to reinforce the information or data that every individual chooses, and the way the individual understands it, this process becomes a feedback positive loop.
However, the sense of positive do not necessarily mean that that the loop is good, al it means is that the feedback pushes the mental processes onwards in lieu of stopping it, and thus confirms what the individual already believes. These selective thought processes that individuals tend to conform to are not good and have in many cases caused individuals to have bad judgement and misguided beliefs about others. For example, from my own personal experiences, there was this day that we agreed to go out and watch a movie with my first friend in college Mary.
We agreed to meet outside the movie theatre at 2000hrs so that we could sit together throughout the movie. I was punctual and I arrived at exactly 2000hrs only to find that Mary was nowhere to be seen. After waiting for over an hour, she arrived and did not even bother to explain why she was late. In fact, I had to admit that according to the way she behaved, she hadn’ t realised she was late at all.
I was furious at Mary during the entire time we spent watching the movie knowing that she simply wasn’ t bothered to be punctual. After that night, I decided that there was no point for us being friends anymore because she valued her time more and didn’ t bother explaining why she was late. A week later, Mary asked me whether we could go out to watch a movie together but I made an excuse in order not to avoid going out with her.
In the end, all that Mary concluded was that I didn’ t want to go out again, she did not bother to ask why I couldn’ t go. I also never bothered to ask Mary why she was late, all I did was make my own observations and arrive at a conclusion. I had even decided that our friendship wasn’ t worth anymore without even telling her what was bothering me.
Beilock, S. L., Rydell, R. J., & McConnell, A. R. (2007). Stereotype threat and working memory: mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136(2), 256
Bushe, G. R. (1999). Advances in appreciative inquiry as an organization development intervention. Organization Development Journal, 17(2), 61.
Cooperrider, D. L., & Whitney, D. (2001). A positive revolution in change: Appreciative inquiry. Public administration and public policy, 87, 611-630.
Dutton, J. E. (2003). Energize your workplace: How to create and sustain high-quality connections at work (Vol. 50). John Wiley & Sons.
Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence. Bantam.
Goleman, D., MacCoby, M., Davenport, T., Beck, J. C., Clampa, D., & Watkins, M. (2001). Harvard Business Review on what makes a leader. Harvard Business School Press.
Good, C., Aronson, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2003). Improving adolescents' standardized test performance: An intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(6), 645-662.
Stein, S. J. (2009). Emotional intelligence for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.