Essays on Industrial Relations and Process of Negotiation Assignment

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The paper "Industrial Relations and Process of Negotiation" is a perfect example of a management assignment. In everyday life, people negotiate. People negotiate in the workplace, at home, in social settings and in business. In order for decisions to be made, people have to enter into negotiations with the people who are going to be influenced by the decisions made. It is difficult to imagine a world of business where negotiations do not exist. Negotiation is an ethical practice. It is not merely about winning; it is about to give and take. Negotiation is a decision-making model that has been explained using different theoretical frameworks.

One of these approaches is the concession/convergence approach. In this approach, negotiation is perceived as an ethical practice. The only problem with this approach is that problems of determinism, power, and asymmetry arise. The theory fails to consider the process of negotiation as it is practically experienced by the negotiating parties. Zartman (1977, p. 625) says that a good starting point for all negotiators is the creation of a formula that is jointly agreeable. The formula forms a point of reference for all the parties.

It creates a notion of justice that everyone who is involved associates with. It defines a common perception through which the details being implemented are based. Power is needed in order for the values that support the negotiation process to stick together until a solution arrives at the end of the negotiation process. It is unfortunate that even in the most well-organized negotiations, whereas some parties are comfortable negotiating, others are afraid that ‘ the case may be lost’ long before the declaration is made in the form of the outcome of the negotiations.

This may arise as a result of problems with representation, the balance of power, and the intricate details of how the terms of negotiations are being discussed. Although negotiation is an ethical undertaking, not everyone is a great negotiator. In normal cases, a negotiator represents the interests of a larger group. However, one's individual interests may form the basis of negotiations. A good example is a situation in which two owners of sole proprietorship businesses are negotiating about a business merger. Lall (1966, p.

287) notes that in cases where a negotiator represents the interests of a larger social, political, or religious group, it is important to send the best negotiator into the negotiating table. A good negotiator understands his strengths and weaknesses as far as negotiation skills are concerned. This is the only way that they can manage to create workable strategies and argue for the best possible deals. In other words, for negotiations to be considered a truly ethical undertaking and to be perceived as such by all parties, one needs to develop the best strategies, techniques and principles. Nadler (2003, p.

536) indicates that negotiations are not based on any set law, policy or regulation. The only principle that binds negotiators is trust and a sense of oneness of purpose. In such circumstances, ethics play an important role in preventing the negotiations from collapsing before an agreement is reached. Negotiators ought to be good communicators who understand the nature of human interaction. They also need to be knowledgeable so that they are able to understand all the issues that arise during the negotiation process.

When some of the negotiators lack the requisite knowledge on the matter under discussion, the negotiations cannot be said to be founded on an ethical platform.


Guasco, M, 2007, Principles of negotiation: strategies, tactics, techniques to reach agreements, Entrepreneur media, Inc., New York

Gallie, D, 1996, Trade unionism in recession, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Howell, C, 2005, Trade unions and the state: the construction of industrial relations institutions in Britain, Princeton University Press, Princeton

Lall, A, 1966, Modern international negotiation, Columbia University Press, New York

Leisink, Peter, 1999, Globalization and labor relations, Edward Elgar, Massachusetts

Lewin, D, 1988, Public sector labor relations: analysis and readings, Routledge, London.

Nadler, J, 2003, ‘Learning Negotiation Skills: Four Models of Knowledge Creation and Transfer’ Management Science, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 529-540.

Zartman, W, 1977, ‘Negotiation as a Joint Decision-Making Process’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 619-638.

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