The paper "Communication Management Issues" is a perfect example of a management assignment. According to psychology, self-fulfilling prophecy leads to unfavorable outcomes. When one has an expectation of that something will occur, there are chances that the same will occur as expected. An example of a self-fulling effect is applied in the field of medicine where a patient is given a drug with no therapeutic effect. Since the patient believes that the drug will bring healing, there will an effect on his/her immune system where it gets enhanced and this, in turn, makes their condition better.
This self-fulfilling prophecy brings a placebo effect. Self-fulfilling prophecy does not have an effect over natural events such as earthquakes but it influences the way one interacts with people and their response to one’ s own behavior. For instance, when one always has an optimistic mindset, they are able to change other’ s perception of them as he/she may be perceived as positive. Negative self-fulfilling prophecies lead to low self-esteem where those affected tend to act overly on critical self-evaluation where they have a pessimistic view of the world and their chances to influence their own situation.
In the process, the negative mindset leads to the strengthening of their self-strengthening prophecies. A11 Our view on the things we see or people we interact with is determined by our perception because, during the perception process, we tend to choose how we perceive things. During the selection process, we get exposed to different stimuli. We decide to pay attention to one specific stimulus and this is guided by our attitude towards that particular stimulus. This process will be based on how that particular stimulus is viewed by others as a result, our goals will be compromised since we tend to follow other’ s attitudes in making our decisions. How one perceives the world influences their general emotional state.
Those who perceive abundance tend to be happy while those who perceive their life as lacking tend to be sad. When one perceives life as a struggle will tend to find problems in every situation and hence will have no happiness while those that are successful see solutions to every problem. One’ s perception limits their view to the good things that life offers as if they have a fixed perception about something, there is a tendency to remain that way and if it is a problem that is perceived as difficult, the person will tend to avoid it thus limiting himself to an opportunity that may arise from solving it. A12 Listening styles Skill Benefits Drawbacks People-oriented listening Focus on emotions Can get an accurate message from the speaker They overly get involved impairing their sense of judgement They can be seen as intrusive by some speakers Content oriented listening They test expertise and truthfulness Focuses on facts Takes caution while doing an assessment Ideas of other speakers may be ignored Action-oriented listening It takes a critical look It harries the speaker towards a conclusion Time oriented listening Seeks short answers which are easy to b understood Annoys others who are keen to listen to the speaker A13 Noise from the psychological states arises from moods and level of arousal and they interfere with listening through distraction.
To reduce the noise due to reduced arousal, the presentation needs to do in a room with adequate lighting for the listener to remain aroused. Overexcited can also cause distraction and this can be minimized by ensuring the listener is calm and ready to listen for them to get the message. Another psychological noise arises from stress due to an upcoming event.
This event may include; losing a job, an upcoming operation, or about food to be eaten for lunch. To minimize this noise, the listener should ensure they have no worries about these events. Presentations should not be made when it is approaching lunchtime to prevent psychological noise to the audience.
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