Essays on Influence of Motivation on Employee Turnover Coursework

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The paper "Influence of Motivation on Employee Turnover" is a good example of business coursework.   Globally, retention of skilled workers remains an issue of great concern to managers considering the high employee turnover rates witnessed across industries. Presently, businesses operate in a highly competitive business environment. As such, Samad (2006, p. 1) argues that having highly skilled and committed employees have become a critical differentiating factor for most companies. Companies of the modern world depend heavily on their skilled employees as a source of competitive advantage. Unfortunately, Samuel and Chipunza (2009, p.

410) note that, in the recent times, retaining top-notch workers has become a challenging endeavor for managers because top-performing employees are being attracted by not just a single firm at the same time with attractive incentives and benefits. Besides, some top-performing employees are migrating to the international markets where they can get better conditions if such cannot be found in the domestic market (Ramlall 2003, p. 64; Bussi 2002, p. 92). Therefore, a company that hopes to succeed in this competitive business environment must view its workforce and ensure that they are retained.

However, motivation has been cited in most literature as one of the factors that affect employee retention in a firm (Ezigbo 2012, p. 115). This paper looks at the influence of motivation on employee turnover. Motivation A large body of literature recognizes motivation as one of the single most factors that influence the behavior of a person. Because of this, motivation is something that employees can adopt to influence the behaviors of their employees, especially to increase their job satisfaction and commitments to the achievement of organizational goals. Pradifa and Welly (2014, p.

89) state that motivation is useful as it can be used to encourage employees to do their jobs. Motivation is a concept has been defined in different ways by different researchers and scholars. Pradifa and Welly (2014, p. 90) define motivation as getting a person to put more effort. In other words, the authors are implying that motivation is about encouraging a worker to increase his/her efforts. Sajjad et al. (2013, p. 76), on the other hand, defines motivation as the process of stimulating, directing, energizing and sustaining behavior and performance.

The author proceeds to state that motivation involves stimulating followers to take action so as to ensure the achievement of the firm’ s desired goals. Sajjad et al. (2013, p. 76) conclude by stating that effective motivation is one of the best ways of stimulating employees to work because motivation increases an employee’ s satisfaction level to his/her work, as well as commitment. Although some managers think that money is the only motivating factor, this is not the case as there are many other motivators that a manager can consider adopting in motivating the workforce.

However, to achieve the greatest motivational effect in an employee, the literature suggests that it is important to consider whether to adopt intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is that type of motivation that comes from within an individual (Del Vecchio & Wagner 2011, p. 4). As such, Armstrong (2004, p. 56) suggested that, where intrinsic motivation is important, a manager does not have to use external inducement to influence an employee’ s behavior or outcome. Intrinsic motivation is particularly used to motivate workers to acquire the desired skills and knowledge.

Extrinsic motivation is that type of motivation that comes due to external inducement (Musa et al. 2014, p. 39; McShane & Von-Glinow 2000, p. 34). External motivation applies where an employee is motivated to perform a task or commit to the organizational goals through the use of external motivators, such as money, recognition, higher commission, feedback, good management style and provision of safe and healthy working conditions. For instance, a study by Olusegun (2012, p. 2) found that the use of extrinsic motivators, such as the provision of competitive reward packages, employee recognition, promotions and safe and healthy working conditions had a motivational effect on the library workers in Some public universities in Nigeria, which in turn reduced their turnover rates.

References

Armstrong, M 2004, Human resource management practice (9"' edition). London: Kogan page.

Bussi M 2002, Retention strategies: remuneration answers. Knowledge Resources, Johannesburg.

Del Vecchio, S., Wagner, J 2011, ‘Motivation and monetary incentives: A closer look,’ Journal of Management and Marketing Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–13.

Ezigbo, C 2012, ‘Reducing turnover by motivation,’ European Journal of Business and Management, vol. Vol 4, No.17, pp. 115-125.

Maertz, C. P., & Griffeth R. W 2004, ‘Eight motivational forces & voluntary turnover: A theoretical synthesis with implications for research. Journal of Management, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 667-683.

McShane, S. L & Von-Glinow, M 2000, Organisational behaviour. McGraw-Hill Co., NewYork.

Mullins, L.J 2010, Management and organisational behaviour, (9th Edition). Pearson Education Ltd, London.

Musa, B. M., Ahmed, I., & Bala, A 2014, ‘Effect of motivational incentives on staff turnover in hotel industry in Gombe State,’ OSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), vol.16, no. 3, pp. 36-42.

Olusegun, O. S 2012, ‘Influence of motivation on turnover of library personnel in Some public universities in South West Nigeria,’ Library Philosophy and Practice, pp. 1-13.

Pradifa, I. S., & Welly, J 2014, ‘The influence of motivation against employee turnover: Case PT Melati,’ Journal Of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No.1, pp. 89-101.

Sajjad, A., Ghazanfar, H., & Ramzan, M 2013, ‘Impact of motivation on employee turnover in telecom sector of Pakistan,’ Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 76-92.

Samad,S 2006, ‘Predicting turnover intentions: The case of Malaysian government doctors,’ The Journal of American Academy of Business, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 1-21.

Samuel, M. O., & Chipunza, C 2009, ‘Employee retention and turnover: Using motivational variables as a panacea,’ African Journal of Business Management, Vol.3 (8), pp. 410-415

Ramlall S 2003, ‘Managing employee retention as a strategy for increasing organisational competitiveness,’ App. H.R.M Res., vol. 8, no.2, pp. 63- 72

Vnoučková, L., & Klupáková, H 2013, ‘Impact of motivation principles on employee turnover,’ Central European Review of Economic Issue, vol. 16, pp. 79–92.

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