Essays on Planned and Processual Approaches to Organizational Change Literature review

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The paper "Planned and Processual Approaches to Organizational Change" is a great example of a literature review on management. For a very long time, researchers and professionals in the field of management agreed that change is inevitable in the organization and that it is best for managers to understand the forces behind the change and how to ensure successful transitions. From the time of the industrial revolution in Britain between 1730 and 1850, the philosophical theories of change and its economic relevance grow and grow as philosophers study and observe employee behavior in companies.

Adam Smith came up with the pin-making method of distributing tasks and structuring factories so that they supported the survival of workplace culture. The contributions later made by Frederick Taylor, Max Weber, and Henri Fayol into the field of organization management built the Classical School of management. Today, managers face the challenge of using traditional planned models of change and still cater to the need for agility and flexibility so that workers can survive the change process. The greatest difficulty that the 21st Century manager faces is the unpredictability and complexity of the global environment that is a crucial instigator for change and the biggest obstacle for the same.

Since change is a continuous process, there is a proposal that companies consider implementing processual models of change and do away with the originally planned ones. However, company directors also want to feel in control of everything that happens in their firms which makes them consider using planned theories of change management. This paper compares planned change management models against processual patterns in all aspects. It will analyze all possible aspects including the advantages and disadvantages of each, their appropriate applications, and their relevance to the existing organization.

There will also be a review of case studies where the paper will evaluate different situations through the various perspectives so that in the end, there will be a recommendation about which method to use in what situation, and with what expectations.


Adams, C.A. and McNicholas, P. (2007). Making a Difference: Sustainability Reporting, Accountability and Organisational Change. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 20(3), p.382-402.

Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re‐Appraisal. Journal of Management studies, 41(6), p.977-1002.

Cutcher, L. (2009). Resisting Change from within and without the Organization. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 22(3), p.275-289.

Chapter Six - Classroom Readings.

Chapter Seven - Classroom Readings.

Dawson, P. (2003). Reshaping Change: A Processual Perspective. Psychology Press.

Dawson, P. (2005). Changing Manufacturing Practices: An Appraisal of the Processual Approach. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 15(4), p.385-402.

Dawson, P. (2014). The Processual Perspective: Studying Change in Organizations. In H. Hasan (Eds.), Being Practical with Theory: A Window into Business Research (p. 64-66). Wollongong, Australia.

Feldman, M.S. (2000). Organizational Routines as a Source of Continuous Change. Organization Science, 11(6), p.611-629.

Hodges, J. and Gill, R. (2014). Sustaining Change in Organizations - Theoretical Approaches to Change and Transformation. Sage.

Liebhart, M. and Garcia-Lorenzo, L. (2010). Between Planned and Emergent Change: Decision Maker’s Perceptions of Managing Change in Organizations. International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, 10(5), p.214-225.

Orlikowski, W.J. (1996). Improvising Organizational Transformation Over Time: A Situated Change Perspective. Information Systems Research, 7(1), p.63-92.

Todnem By, R. (2005). Organizational Change Management: A Critical Review. Journal of Change Management, 5(4), p.369-380.

Tsoukas, H. and Chia, R. (2002). On Organizational Becoming: Rethinking Organizational Change. Organization Science, 13(5), p.567-582.

Van De Walle, S. and Groeneveld, S. (2011). New Steering Concepts in Public Management (Vol. 21). Emerald Group Publishing.

Weick, K.E. and Quinn, R.E. (1999). Organizational Change and Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 50(1), p.361-386.

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