Research method for businessResearch methodologyResearch Methodology is the framework within the confines of which a study is conducted It lays down approach to a problem to be applied in a research programme. This paper will examine different research methods in practice. There is no single best method for research. Rather an approach most effective for the solving of the problem under study will have to be selected. And “Research methodology is always a compromise between options in the light of tacit philosophical assumptions, and choices are frequently influenced by availability of resources” (Gill J, Johnson P 2002) The end result of a study should go a long way in helping solve the problem under study by means of research methods adopted.
. Through out the exercise aim and objectives of the study should be kept in mind to apply appropriate research methods. A research paper will have to state the research design and justification of the methods selected and will narrate how the research has been conducted to achieve the object of the study on question. This paper will mainly deal with Qualitative Research Methods.
Many firms besides specific problems confronting their business, invariably conduct marketing research for forecasting their sales employing qualitative research methods and quantitative techniques short of hypothesis testing. Data requirementStudies are conducted by either the quantitative or qualitative research approaches. .Saunders et al (2003) quotes Carl Gustav Jung as saying that science which relies on the concept of averages is not suitable for subjective studies. If a study is subjective, statistical science which works on averages is considered unsuitable for achieving the aim of a study.
Studies of social science subjects are mostly found to be feasible by way of adopting qualitative research methods. On the other hand for a perspective study, quantitative approach which calls for validity and reliability and requires a lot of theoretical persuasiveness will be adopted. To achieve the objectives of a study, many ways ( research methods) gathering information are available through literature reviews, talking with people, focus groups, personal interviews, telephone surveys, mail surveys, email surveys and internet surveys. Research design and justificationIn research terminology, the research objectives are theories to be developed.
Saunders et al endorse the proposition of Engelen and Zwaan (1994) that theory development trajectory involves using of existing theory and practices and construction of a new theory reflecting reality with a high predictability. Testing of the same is done to determine its confirmation or rejection in other words answering the research questions as correct or not. In theory application, a problem is diagnosed, defined and theories (suggestions) to improve the unwanted situation (deficiency) are determined (arrived at) see figure 1 below. (Saunders et al 2003)Figure. 1Figure 1The literature review will throw open several aspects of subject under study citing several case studies and sources of research giving rise to new theories.
Figure 1confirms this. Saunders et al (2003) state that Engleen and Zwaan differentiate two main research cycles for management studies. They are 1) Empirical cycle with five steps of Research goal, Research design, Data Collection, Data Analysis and Reporting. And 2) Design cycle also the five steps of Design Goal, Design specifications, generation of different designs, selection from different designs and Reporting.