Essays on Methods Associated with Quantitative Research Coursework

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The paper "Methods Associated with Quantitative Research" is a great example of business coursework. A qualitative  approach to research is mainly used to conduct exploratory research that helps in understanding the reasons behind certain opinions and motivations according to (Taylor, Steven, Robert & Marjorie 2015). Qualitative research gives more understanding and insights into hypothesis and quantitative research. The sample size used to conduct the research is usually small. Qualitative research approaches help to answer questions such as why and how during research. Qualitative methods are more flexible as compared to quantitative research methods.

Analysis of qualitative data is through interpretive methods. Qualitative research traditions and theories There are different traditions that form the basis for qualitative research as discussed below. Ecological psychology The tradition was started by Baker, Wright and their colleagues at the University of Kansas. Its conception and ideas draw from natural history. Ecological psychologists study human behavior that occurs naturally as well as the impact the environment has on human behavior. According to ecological psychologists, human behavior is both objective and subjective in nature. The tradition also asserts that the environment also has both subjective and objective attributes.

The subjective nature of the environment is the perception an individual has towards the environment while the objective aspect refers to the ecological environment. Ecological psychologists claim that environment and individuals are interdependent. The tradition aims at describing certain behavior as well as discovers the laws that govern behavior. Holistic ethnography Holistic ethnography was developed by Franz Boaz and Bronislaw Malinowski. The tradition works towards analyzing partly or wholly the beliefs and cultures of a group of people. Holistic ethnographers define culture as both pattern for and patterns of behavior.

The holistic ethnographers believe that cultures are interdependent and if one changes, it affects the others and that each culture is unique in its own way. According to this tradition, there exists some diversity in the sense that, individuals have to observe their environment so as to decide how to behave in different situations. The aim of holistic ethnographers is to study the culture of bound groups such as towns, institutions or countries. The tradition focuses on exploration and learning and not testing as asserted by (Preissle & Le Compte 1984). Ethnography of communication Ethnography of communication was developed from the work of sociolinguistics, sociology, anthropology and non-verbal communication.

The tradition focuses on the various patterns of interaction among members of a culture as well as people from different cultures. It aims at studying how people interact face to face. Communication ethnographers use culture as a tool for understanding the behavior of human beings and assume that both verbal and non-verbal communications are culturally bound to each other according to (Preissle & Le Compte 1984). Cognitive anthropology The theory was developed by Ward Goodenough and Charles Frake who focused mainly on linguistic methods.

The cognitive anthropologists define culture as being mental and they focus on language as the main determinant of culture. The main aim of cognitive anthropology is to observe the expected and most appropriate behavior and not the observable behavior according to (Lewis 2015).

References

Strauss, A. and Corbin, J., 1998. Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory . Sage Publications, Inc.

Taylor, Steven J., Robert Bogdan, and Marjorie DeVault. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.

Preissle, J. and Le Compte, M.D., 1984. Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research. Academic Press.

Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, p.1524839915580941.

Creswell, J.W., 2013. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Teddlie, C. and Tashakkori, A. eds., 2009. Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Sage Publications Inc.

Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. and Chadwick, B., 2008. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. British dental journal, 204(6), pp.291-295.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K., 2013. Research methods in education. Routledge.

Johnson, R.B. and Onwuegbuzie, A.J., 2004. Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational researcher, 33(7), pp.14-26.

Saunders, M.N., 2009. Research methods for business students, 5/e. Pearson Education India.

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