Research Methods for Management and Professional DevelopmentIntroduction Research forms an important part of every organization without which the organization is bound to fail. This calls for managers to develop appropriate research skill to be implemented in their daily operations. The changing market structure, emerging challenges and rising competition are the main cause of the need for continuous research in any company or organization. In addition, managers are involved in marching group, individual and organizational need to ensure job satisfaction as well as the achievement of set goals and objectives.
The expectation is that they develop and design departmental structures, jobs and project. To be effective in the job market, individuals in these managing positions need to develop their skills on a daily basis. Quality management results from the manager’s ability to detect, analyze and address an existing problem as well as maintain a customer, employee friendly environment. This heavily relies on the research methods and skills applied. Making a mistake in any process of data collection and formulation of management question ultimately results to a wrong interpretation of the information and hence the solutions applied do not address the main existing problem.
The research design in management field includes: formulation of questionnaires and interview schedules, procedures in data collection, measuring techniques, data coding, validity and reliability of collected data, methods of analysis including the qualitative and quantitative methods, interpretation of analyzed data, discussions and conclusions drawn from results, report writing and the integration of theory into practice. Statement of the issue/problem and its organizational context and significance. The success in management of companies or organizations highly depends on the success in conducting researches.
Though most managers and employees at lower level are aware of the existing research method in management of organizations and companies, they often fail in the application. The failure some times begins from the initial stage of problem identification, selection of the research method to use and in the sampling procedure. Poor representation of the population for which a research is being conducted will result to poor results which cannot be applied for the wider generation. This calls managers and those who wish to develop profession wise to clearly understand the different research methods in the field of management and their accurate application in the real life situations without which the organizations in context are bound to fail.
The success in research and in solving organization problems lies on the ability and accuracy with which research methods are selected and applied. AssumptionsThis study assumes that all the required data will be available to come up with final conclusions. It also assumes that the information to be used was conducted scientifically and that personal attitudes of the researchers are not represented in the data.
Since the research must be representative if one is to generalize it to a wider population, this research assumes that the data collected in the past researches was representative. In addition, it assumes that the people to be interviewed will willingly answer the questions with sincerity. This means that every individual to be included in the research will clearly understand the questions and respond appropriately. Purpose of the studyThis study is aimed at identifying the methods of research applied in management of organizations and companies and their short comings.
It assesses the capacity and ability of managers to conduct scientific researches and come up with solution to various challenges and problems emerging in their organizations. It therefore considers the managers as a very important determinant of the success of any business operation which is in relation to the characteristics of the manager. The research is directed towards identifying the most effective methods for professional development and for application in the management of organizations. aims and objectives To identify the research methods applied in management. To identify the data collection techniques that are most appropriate in management.
To determine the ultimate role of research in managementTo identify the challenges faced in conducting research in management and professional developing. Research questionsIs there any relationship between successful management and knowledge of research methods by managers? Is there a relationship between the applied research methods and success in problem solving? Is there a relationship between the research method applied and the accuracy of obtained results? Null hypothesisThere is no relationship between organizational success and research methodology applied in problem identification and solving. Definition of terms Survey research- the method by which people’s opinions, actions and characteristics are collected from a fraction of the population and recorded as quantitative data with the aim of advancing the scientific knowledge.
Limitations of the study The research considers failure in application of research methods as the sole cause of organizational failure. The research does not consider environmental barriers as a cause of failure where research methods are applied. The research concentrates on the role of managers and does not consider recruitment and economic recession as a cause of poor application of research methodologies. Review of the LiteratureThe business world is currently under a stiff competition as organizations and companies seek to maintain competitive advantage.
These organization heavily rely research to ensure that they are above their competitors in quality and efficiency in which they provide their services and goods. Research in the management field involves the search for truth through experiment, comparison, observation and review of existing literature. It involves definition of existing problems within an organization, systematic search for knowledge. |The field of research in the management sector is faced with many challenges that call for quality training for managers (Epston & White 1989).
Most organization lack scientific training in the field of research. The challenges faced include the difficult in extracting information from their competitors and other organization as these organizations fear that releasing information will be disadvantageous to them. A research carried out in 1993 on the application of survey methods found out that despite the belief that survey method yields accurate and easy to interpret data, there are many times when the results are inaccurate and unreliable.
This is owed to the some important weaknesses that are evident when survey method is misapplied. The weaknesses include; neglect of longitudinal methods even when necessary, inadequate responses, a weak link between the respondent and the applied analysis units, inadequate an unsystematic procedures in sampling and neglect of multiple design methods where necessary. These weaknesses result to a validity in results obtained in different longitudinal and cross sectional surveys (Kraemer 1993). In addition, the quality of survey differs in researches conducted for different purposes. For instance, descriptive and explanatory researches are of relatively low quality while explanatory researches yield relatively quality results.
The process applied in the collection, recording, analysis, interpretation and the application of that information determines the success of the research process. Since companies and organizations highly rely on research to improve the quality of services and goods, accuracy in conducting and application of the results is paramount (Hussey and Hussey 1997). The results of survey research can be used for several purposes including, explanation, description and exploration. Descriptions in survey research aims at testing facts while explanation in the same kind of research tests casual relationships and theory. Cross-sectional and experimental methods are also applied in researching on issues concerning (Williams and May 1996).
The explanation is given on the basis of causal effects i. e. variable k influences variable z either positively or negatively. Management and professional development. Cross-sectional method involves the study of a given population in its natural environment with no control over what the subjects do but at set timings. On the other hand, experimental method involves the study of a given population in a modified environment. As the world turns to a global village, demographic diversity increases and the challenge is how to bring the different workers with their cultural diversity to work together in harmony.
This call for extensive engagement in the field of research to understand the heterogeneity of workers and the barriers to adequate performance. A lot is being invested in human power which has been declared as the most beneficial form of investment an organization can make. However, human capital can not be adequately invested if the perceived barriers and benefits are not identified.
This calls for engagement in the field of research (Denzin and Lincoln 1998). Apart from conducting research on existing challenges or problems, it is important for managers and other stakeholders to apply research methodologies in assessing the success of an intervention. This would help identify any challenge that is likely to be faced and direct on how to deal with this. Ignoring this idea might result to total failure of the intervention hence wastage of resources. The cause of failure of an organization may be the failure in the organization structure.
In studying these, both qualitative and quantitative data must be collected. Failure to accurately follow the procedures which differ in theory as well as application can result to poor research outcomes (University of pectoria etd 2004). All the aspects in the organization should be considered including the organization culture. Determination of the most effective method is done once a given research has been done (University of pectoria etd 2004). The success of any organization is determined by an inter play of a number of factors including the set policies, organization structure, team work, group cohesion among others.
In a large organization such as a university, the stake holders comprise of persons from different cultural back grounds and how easely these people join together in team work determine the success or failure of the organization as well as of meeting personal objectives (NSSE Institute for Effective Educational Practice 2009). Where multiple researchers are needed, inadequate training has resulted to poor result. The researchers in this case fail in collecting recording data. The methods utilized in many managers fail because they are out dated.
Currently, much of advertising is done online and the outdated methods are not adequate in dealing with these factors. As a result, the outcomes of such researches are biased and provide inadequate solutions to existing problems. This calls for managers to be involved in conducting research using the modern mechanisms and more training to acquire the skills required. According to cross media research, The use of media research also enable the collection of a large representative sample but should be combined with non-online methods to include those that do not or rarely access the internet.
In assessing conflict, the research variables applied by Caldwell and Ancona indicated that the process variables applied were wrong (James & Edward 2009). This means that for a research to obtain adequate and correct results, the identification of variables to be tested should be accurate. This can only be gained through ensuring professionalism in the daily operations. In some cases, researches have been conducted scientifically but have failed in the analysis of data collected (Rose and Sullivan 1996).
This has resulted to poor interpretation of information gathered resulting to application of wrong solutions. For any organization to be successful, such incidences should be eliminated as they result to huge losses. METHODOLOGYMethodological perspectiveThe research will involve action which must be objective as derived conclusions can be subjected to test through the use of deductive or inductive hypothesis (Gee 1990). Positivism is basically based on empirical evidence from observations and experience that can be put to test. Any information that cannot be tested is not recorded as facts. In the research on the research, methods in management and professional development, quantitative data will be collected and subjected to test.
Conclusions will hence be made on this ground. In phenomenology, the objective reality of a phenomenon is not considered. It merely seeks to understand the way people construct meanings with the main concept being inter-subjectivity (Crotty 1996). According to this phenomenon, research in management and professional development is dependant on our view in relation to social artifacts. Since man is a human being, the information to be collected will include qualitative data which depicts people’s perception in the research methods applied in management (Ehrich 1996).
Research DesignLongitudinal research design will be applied in this research where the cases will be studied before and after an intervention. This means that the research will be conducted in two points in time. This is aimed at testing whether the phenomena has any effects on the sample being studied. Since qualitative and quantitative data will be collected descriptive research will be applied. Past researches will be reviewed and questionnaires used in the collection of data.
The time frame for this research is six months ensure a wide coverage. Qualitative data will be coded so as to develop a quantitative statistical data for analysis. The study will be a comparative study in which different variables will be compared and their relationship to one developing fear of walking at night. Only past scientific researches will be used since they are objective, precise and have a high accuracy level. This information will then be reviewed to come up with final conclusion. Sampling The sampling method to be applied is random sampling.
Data from relevant samples in the managerial and other leadership levels in different organizations will be used. Other employees will also be interviewed to gauge their knowledge on the research methods that are applied in the organizations. This will reduce biases in sample selection. However, participants will voluntarily participate in this process. Selected samples will be informed on confidentiality and study purpose of information collected. If one feels insecure and wants to terminate his or her participation, they will not face any negative repercussion. The samples will also target those developing their professional skills in masters and PHD level to determine their capacity to translate what is known in theory in practical life situation.
Description of study populationThe study population comprises professionals and workers in leadership position of different organizations and all persons involved in conducting researches in the organizations. The research will rely heavily on the managers to provide information on past researches and the findings including the procedures applied. and above from all nationalities and races based in Britain. It will include both citizens and non citizens. The study population will not be selected on the basis of monthly income or sex.
All persons who will be used in the pre-test will have the same characteristics with the study population but will not be involved in the actual study. The findings will be drawn from researches done in the period between 2005 and 2010. However, data collected in other years will also be utilized so as to draw comparison. Data collection methodsThe data will be collected through a review of past researches on the research methods for management and professional development.
This includes journals published in the past ten years. The articles will then be classified depending on the purpose of study, a framework be developed for assessment and actual researches be assessed. Data collection instrumentThis research will utilize both the secondary and the primary data its analysis to come up with conclusion. This will involve making request for data to be made available on large population surveys. Confidentiality of information collected will be observed. Past articles will be used to identify whether the data obtained is objective or not.
A questionnaire will be used to draw information from the sample. The questionnaires will include both closed an open ended question to draw more information and eliminate biasness in the research. Data analysisIn the analysis of data collected, SPSS will be applied. This will involve coding of data to enable analysis and interpretation. Tables and pie charts are the formants in which presentation of data will be done and conclusions will then be draw. This will ensure precision and accuracy in data analysis and presentation. Conclusions will be drawn depending on set objectives and the hypothesis will be tested.
This will enhance accuracy in analysis of information gathered (Healey 1996). BibliographyKraemer, L, 1993, Survey research methodology in management information systems, an assessment, Califonia, University of Califonia. James D, & Edward J, 2009, The symbolic management of stockholders, corporate governance reforms and shareholder reactions. Hussey, J, and Hussey, R, 1997, Business Research, A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, London, Macmillan. Williams, M, and T, May, 1996, Introduction to the Philosophy of Social Research, London, UCL Press, Denzin, N, and Y, Lincoln (eds), 1998, Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, London, Sage. Rose, D, and Sullivan, O, 1996, Introducing Data Analysis for the Social Sciences, Buckingham, Open University Press. Healey, J, 1996, Statistics, a Tool for Social Research, London, Wadsworth. Crotty, M, 1996, Doing phenomenology in Qualitative Research Practice in Adult Education, (eds) Willis, P, and Neville, B, Ringwood, Victoria, David Lovell Publishing. Ehrich, C, 1996, The difficulties of using phenomenology, A novice researcher's experience in Qualitative Research Practice in Adult Education, (eds) Willis, P, and Neville, B, David Ringwood, Victoria, Lovell Publishing. Epston, D.
& White, M.
1989, Literate Means to Therapeutic Ends, Adelaide, Dulwich Centre Publications. Gee, J, 1990, Social Linguistics and Literacies, Ideology in Discourses, New York, Falmer Press. University of pectoria etd, 2004, Research methodology and method: if we knew what it were doing, it would not be called research, would it? Einstein, A , 1979-1955, Du plessis. NSSE Institute for Effective Educational Practice, 2009, Documenting Effective Educational Practice (DEEP) project, Research Methods, Indiana, Indiana University Center for Postsecondary ResearchCrossMedia research, Product of dynamic logic, methodology, New York