RESEARCH TRADITIONS Management: Research Traditions in Scientific Inquiry Based on your developing understanding of the philosophic traditions—positivism, interpretivism, constructivism, critical inquiry and postmodernism—and their underlying assumptions related to ontology, epistemology, and axiology, analyze each article and determine which tradition most likely influenced the authors work in the two articles you found. Positivism, as defined in philosophy, is the system which confines itself to experience data and excludes metaphysical speculations from the research. This view of philosophy is the brainchild of Auguste Comte, a French philosopher who lived between the years 1798 to 1857.
Positivism declares the empirical sciences as the primary source of knowledge and dismisses other branches of philosophy. According to this theory of philosophy, anything speculated cannot be used as a source of knowledge. With this in mind, we take a look at Edward Younkin’s article Objectivist Virtue Ethics in Business. According to Edward, the actions we consider virtuous may lead to achievement of values. With this in mind, he holds that in business, the pursuit of virtuous strategies, principles, as well as actions, according to virtue theory, may result in the realization of values by firms.
This may include purpose, mission, other goals, including the profit potential of the firms. As Edward explains, virtuous employees always do their tasks in a manner that is in line with the goals of the company. What is a common or key theory related to your inquiry topic for this course, or used in the research article that you read this week? In relation to the positivism theory of philosophy, Edwards’s point of view would not hold since it is based on theories that are not empirical in nature.
There is no scientific theory that he uses to prove his claims regarding the relationship of virtue theory to the way employees perform in their work and duties at the place of work. Edward goes on to state that ethics is a very important part of business under virtue theory. Management requires virtuous employees. This point of view can be proven from scientific point of view. Therefore, some of Edward’s views on management and organization can hold in positivism theory of philosophy. Change in organizations is something inevitable.
It is only natural when new people come into an organization while others leave for greener pastures. It cannot be denied that change is inevitable. The environment an organization exists in will definitely guide the manner and direction of change in that organization. Organizations have to change in their structure and their systems in order to be able to meet their goals and objectives, as well as their mission. Structures for the changes in organizations have to be made in the mission and the vision of the organization.
This is the only way people can be able to keep up with the changes that take place in the organization. As long people keep changing in their behavior and needs, as well as desires, there will always be changes in organization; managers know this only so well. For the research article you found this week, which of Arbnor and Bjerkes (1997) six social science paradigms most closely aligns with the way the authors viewed the phenomenon being studied? In writing this article, the author uses the critical inquiry philosophy of research to make his arguments known to the readers of the research paper.
Critical inquiry is often structured in such a way as to make students know of the methods reasoning such as avoiding fallacy, causal reasoning, as well as the practical use of the methods of critical thinking. As the author goes on about the need for change in all businesses, critical inquiry comes out clearly in his manner of argument and explanation of aspects of change and analysis into organization and management. References Dick, B. (1998).
Abstraction and Theories. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from Occassional Pieces in Action Research Methodology: http: //www. scu. au/schools/gcm/ar/arm/op007.html Hayakawa, S. I. (1979). Language in Thought and Action. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Latour, B. (2002). Morality and Technology. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from Sage Journals: http: //tcs. sagepub. com/content/19/5-6/247.abstract Stockdale, S. (1979, November 5). An Essay on Levels of Abstractions. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from ThisIsNotThat: http: //thisisnotthat. com/learn/litaa. html Younkins, E. W. (2012, April 24). Objectivist Virtue Ethics in Business. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from Rational Argumentator: http: //www. rationalargumentator. com/index/blog/2012/04/objectivist-virtue-ethics-busines/