The paper "Resistance to Planned Organisational Change" is a good example of a literature review on management. Despite that change is implemented for positive objectives like adapting to volatile economic environment conditions and being competitive, organization members often react negatively to change and resist change (Boohene & Williams, 2012). Resistance to change is an attitude or behavior indicating an unwillingness to support or make desired change occur (Mullins, 2005: Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn, 2005). Kurt Lewin introduced the term resistance to change in his field theory and his work on group dynamics.
Resistance may be in form of strikes, reduced organizational commitment, increased hostility towards the implementation of change, absenteeism, sabotage of the organizational systems among other negative changes in behavior by employees (Erwin & Garman, 2010). Resistance to change may be blind resistance, political resistance, or ideological resistance (Burke, 2008). Blind resistance occurs when the involved parties are afraid or intolerant of the change due to the unknown results of the change implemented. Political resistance occurs when the organization members believe they will lose something of value like power, status, position, budget, personal compensation among other things due to change.
Ideological resistance on the other hand involves honest intellectual disagreement in terms of genuine feelings, beliefs, or philosophies over change implementation, for instance, it is ill-timed, not appropriate, or will create more harm than good ( Yilmaz and Kilicoglu 2013,p. 16). Resistance to change is equivalent to inertia force that wants to maintain the status quo (King and Anderson, 1995). Resistance affects the implementation of the planned change process; it delays or slows down it's beginning, hinders or obstructs implementation while also increasing the cost of change implementation.
For instance, Jick (1993, p. 329) suggests that “ resistance is a catch-all phrase; it describes anyone who doesn’ t change as fast as we do, as well as people who seemingly refuse to budge.
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Boohene, R. & Williams A. A. (2012). Resistance to organizational change: A case study of Oti Yeboah Complex Limited. International usiness and Management, 4(1), 135-145.
Burke, W. W. (2002). Organization change: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. .
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Derya Yılmaz and Gökhan Kılıçoğlu (2013). Resistance to change and ways of reducing resistance in educational organizations. pg 16. European Journal of Research on education.
Erwin, D. G. & Garman, A. N.(2010).Resistance to organizational change: linking research and practice. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(1), 39-56.
Geller, E. S. (2002). Leadership to overcome resistance to change: It takes more than consequence control. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 22(3), 29-49. .
JICK. (1993). Manage change.Module 4 The Recipients of change pg 329.
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King and Anderson (1995).Innovation and Change in Organizations. London: Routledge.
Kotter, J. P., & Cohen, D. S. (2002). The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. .
Levin, B. (1993). School response to a changing environment. Journal of Educational Administration, 31(2), 4-20.
Michelman, P. (2007). Overcoming resistance to change. Harvard Management Update, 12(7), 3-4.
Mullins, L. J. (2005). Management and organisational behavior. Harlow, England ; New York : Prentice Hall/Financial Times.
Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change. Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 15(1). Retrieved February 23, 2008, from Business Source Complete database. .
Piderit, S.K. (2000). “Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: a multidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizational change”, Academy of Management Review, 25 (4), pp. 783-794.
Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T. A. (2009). Organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Schermerhorn, J. G., Hunt, J. G., & Osborn, R. N. (2005). Organizational behavior (Ninth edition). United States of America: John Wiley & Sons .
Stanley, D. J., Meyer, J. P., & Topolnytsky, L. (2005). Employee cynicism and resistance to organizational change. Journal of Business & Psychology, 19(4), 429-459.
Waddell, Cummings and Worley (2007). Organisation development & change. South Melbourne: Thomson.