15th, October, 2009OutlineThe paper is about immune system interactions with the nervous system and discusses about research findings, current trends and contribution made by a current research study about the discovery of a novel mediator involved in the interaction between the two systems. The mediator is ISRAA and is found to be expressed in the spleen after an infection by African Trypanosomiasis. The paper is divided into sections consisting of the introduction, the background which is also sub divided, the contributions made by the discovery of the novel mediator, future directions and then the conclusion. 1.0 Introduction SectionThis has covered the basics of psychoneuroimmunology which is expanded in the background section.
It has explained when psychoneuroimmunology began, how it has been progressing including a contribution made recently by Bakhiet and Taha and briefly about the interaction between the nervous system and the immune system. The two researchers’ work has been described as a case giving the research area being reviewed. The introduction also states the aim of the paper. 2.0 The Background SectionThe background section has given an overview of the immune system to help understand more about the interactions, has covered the role of the nervous system in immune response modulation, the mechanism of interaction between the two systems, other mediators already known to exist in the interaction between the two systems and other related research in the area of psychoneuroimmunology.
It has also covered current research issues being addressed which give an overview of the direction the research area has taken currently. It has described some examples and areas where researchers have focused in. 3.0 The Impact of Bakhiet’s findings/Research on the Field of PsychoneuroimmunologyThis is the next section discussed in this paper and it has covered the effect Bakhiet and Taha’s findings have had on the research progress.
4.0 Future DirectionsFuture directions are given based on previous information gathered from various research conducted about the research area and the current trend taken by researchers involved in studying the interaction between the immune system and the nervous system. 5.0 ConclusionThis is a brief summary of what have been discussed giving ideas about what has been found out about the research area. 1.0 IntroductionThe study of immunologically associated changes due to interactions between the immune system and the nervous system is a scientific field that also contributes to the problem solving goal of scientists which is to find therapies to diseases.
For the past 2 decades, neuroimmunology/psychoneuroimmunology has emerged as a new field of scientific inquiry (Ader, 2007). So many discoveries have been made since 1991 when the first discovery about this field was made (Kin & Sanders, 2006). The first study showed that the immune capacity of the cells of students with Tuberculosis was reduced when stress was imposed on them.
It was specifically the phagocytic capacity of the cells to eliminate Tuberculosis pathogens that reduced (Kin & Sanders, 2006). Since then, more knowledge has been obtained and a lot of progress made. Scientific studies have revealed that the communication between the nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system can lead to protection from disease or development of disease depending on the information being transmitted between the systems, the nervous system regulation and the conditions that have triggered the transmission (Kin & Sanders, 2006).
The discovery of the communication between the two systems is a major break through in the scientific research field and the study of its bi-directional communication between the nervous system and the immune system; and the factors involved can help resolve certain diseases problems if found to be a contributing factor to the diseases. Some diseases develop due to the information being passed from the nervous system to the immune cells for response for example in AMG (Kin & Sanders, 2006).