Essays on Cultures and Organisations or Software of the Mind Assignment

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The paper 'Cultures and Organisations or Software of the Mind' is a perfect example of a Tourism Assignment. Tourism has been an important aspect of societies across the world. However, it is also responsible for a number of negative gains to the culture of these societies. This question focuses on the effects of tourism on the culture and society of Tana Toraja. Enhances employment and the development of human resource On its introduction to the Toraja community, tourism heightened the employment opportunities available to the community members. Apparently, the local high schools were seen offering training to the youth in search of jobs in the hotels or as guides (Adams 1998, p.

331). Those in the rural areas who could not access the high schools for training engaged in carving to support their families (Adams 1998, p. 331). Additionally, the young people through tourism learned to market their culture to tourists. Preservation of the culture tourism Tourism has enabled the Toraja community to preserve its culture. Evidently, the traditional culture of Toraja would have faced attacks from the modernizing pressures were it not for tourism. Commodification of culture According to Evans (1993), culture commodification takes place when the dances and ceremonies usually performed at occasions and festivals end up being part of the tourist industry’ s repertoire.

The ceremonies within the Tana Toraja community are arranged to suit the timetables of the tourists. Clearly, the traditional objects of this community are now sold as souvenirs in the market. Moreover, the beautiful beads that were highly valued by the Torajas started being sold to the tourists at a high price not affordable to the local people. Besides, the Tau tau statues were stolen and sold cheaply by the youth as they did not know their value to acquire money to at least purchase a T-shirt. Visual pollution It is apparent that the provision and positioning of the toilet facilities in the Tana Toraja community for international tourists led to a glaring illustration of visual pollution.

These buildings with galvanized iron-roofs had been incompetently located and as a result, they destroyed the primeval burial caves as well as the funeral statues that could be viewed directly from the road (Crystal 1989, p.

142). Social impacts According to Crystal (1989, p. 154), the Trojans recall wistfully when their precious heirloom artifacts, as well as the crucial life predicaments rites, had no value to the outsiders. It has been noted that those Christian urbanities in Sulawesi who are educated were preferred to the religious specialists and the traditionalist villagers in interpreting the culture of Toraja to the international tourists. Vulnerability to disaster In the year 1990, the Torajans realized how susceptible the tourist destinations are to political events. Apparently, their tourism industry faced some issues as a result of the 1997 Asian economic crisis as well as the political unrest evident at the end of the term of President Suharto.

The attempts to fight tourists have also resulted in warnings to Sulawesi travel discouraging the international tourists from visiting.

References

Adams, KM 1998, More than an ethnic marker: Toraja art as identity negotiator. American Ethnologist, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 327-351.

Baker, K & Coulter, A 2007, Terrorism and tourism: The vulnerability of beach vendors livelihoods in Bali’. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 249-266.

Brown, T 1999, Antecedents of culturally significant tourist behavior. Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 676-700.

Crystal, E 1989, Tourism in Toraja (Sulawesi, Indonesia) In ed VL Smith Hosts and guests: the anthropology of tourism, 2nd edition, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 139-168.

Evans, G. 1993, A global village: anthropology in the future in ed. G. Evans Asia’s cultural mosaic: an anthropological introduction, Prentice Hall, New York, pp. 367-384.

Hofstede, G 1991, Cultures and Organisations: The Software of the Mind, Harper Collins, London.

Kim, SS & Prideaux, B 2003, ‘Tourism, peace, politics and ideology: impacts of the Mt. Gumgang tour project in the Korean Peninsula’, Tourism Management, vol. 24, pp. 675-685.

Kim, YK & Crompton, JL 1990, ‘Role of tourism in unifying the two Koreas’, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 17, pp. 353-366.

Lisle, D 2004, Gazing at Ground Zero: tourism, voyeurism and spectacle, Journal of Cultural Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3-21

McKean, PF, 1989, ‘Towards a theoretical analysis of tourism: economic dualism and cultural involution in Bali’, in ed. V Smith, Hosts and Guests: The anthropology of tourism, 2nd edition, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 119-138.

Richter, LK & Waugh, WL 1986, Terrorism and tourism as logical companions. Tourism Management, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 230-238

Var, T, Ap, J, Van Doren, C, 1995, ‘Tourism and world peace, in ed. W Theobald, Global tourism: the next decade, Butterworth Heinemann, Jordan Hill, Oxford, pp. 27-39.

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