Essays on Statistics and Business Research Methods Coursework

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The paper "Statistics and Business Research Methods" is a good example of a statistics coursework.   The research methods purposes to inform action and explain the relationship between two or more realities. In contextualizing the findings of the research, research methods add to the larger body of knowledge and practical body of research. Thus, the research explores, discover, explain, link, as well as construct practical truth from theories and develop them. The performance in particular subjects can also be compared and explain between 2012 and 2014 by considering the final exams and assignment 1 and 2 results.

This paper aims at explaining the variations in terms of their similarities and differences. The normal and the de-trended Q-Q plot for H001Assignment02-20 Frequency table for H1002FinalExam-50 H1002FINALEXAM50   Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid . 00 12.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00 28.00 29.00 30.00 31.00 32.00 33.00 34.00 35.00 36.00 39.00 40.00 Total 1 1 3 1 3 2 3 1 2 2 9 10 10 10 9 5 4 4 6 2 1 3 4 1 1 98 . 9 . 9 2.6 . 9 2.6 1.7 2.6 . 9 1.7 1.7 7.8 8.7 8.7 8.7 7.8 4.3 3.5 3.5 5.2 1.7 . 9 2.6 3.5 . 9 . 9 85.2 1.0 1.0 3.1 1.0 3.1 2.0 3.1 1.0 2.0 2.0 9.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 9.2 5.1 4.1 4.1 6.1 2.0 1.0 3.1 4.1 1.0 1.0 100.0 1.0 2.0 5.1 6.1 9.2 11.2 14.3 15.3 17.3 19.4 28.6 38.8 49.0 59.2 68.4 73.5 77.6 81.6 87.8 89.8 90.8 93.9 98.0 99.0 100.0   Missing System 17 14.8     Total 115 100.0     Histogram for H1002FinalExams-50 The normal and the de-trended Q-Q plot for H1002FinalExam-50 Frequency Table for H1002Assignment01-30 H1002ASSIGNMENT0130   Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 4.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 Total 1 2 5 1 2 4 3 8 20 15 25 8 4 98 . 9 1.7 4.3 . 9 1.7 3.5 2.6 7.0 17.4 13.0 21.7 7.0 3.5 85.2 1.0 2.0 5.1 1.0 2.0 4.1 3.1 8.2 20.4 15.3 25.5 8.2 4.1 100.0 1.0 3.1 8.2 9.2 11.2 15.3 18.4 26.5 46.9 62.2 87.8 95.9 100.0   Missing System 17 14.8     Total 115 100.0     Histogram for H1002Assignment01-30 The frequency table and the histogram of H1002Assignment02 The De-trended and the normal Q-Q plot of H1002Assignment 02 The frequency table for H1003FinalExams-50 H1003FINALEXAM50   Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 4.00 8.00 10.00 11.00 13.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00 28.00 29.00 30.00 31.00 32.00 33.00 34.00 35.00 37.00 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Total 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 5 7 18 8 2 4 1 4 1 7 2 1 2 2 1 3 3 3 1 98 1.7 . 9 1.7 . 9 . 9 2.6 2.6 1.7 1.7 2.6 . 9 1.7 4.3 6.1 15.7 7.0 1.7 3.5 . 9 3.5 . 9 6.1 1.7 . 9 1.7 1.7 . 9 2.6 2.6 2.6 . 9 85.2 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 3.1 3.1 2.0 2.0 3.1 1.0 2.0 5.1 7.1 18.4 8.2 2.0 4.1 1.0 4.1 1.0 7.1 2.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 3.1 3.1 3.1 1.0 100.0 2.0 3.1 5.1 6.1 7.1 10.2 13.3 15.3 17.3 20.4 21.4 23.5 28.6 35.7 54.1 62.2 64.3 68.4 69.4 73.5 74.5 81.6 83.7 84.7 86.7 88.8 89.8 92.9 95.9 99.0 100.0   Missing System 17 14.8     Total 115 100.0     The histogram of H1003FinalExam-50 The frequency table and histogram for the H1003Assignment-01 H1003ASSIGNMENT01   Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 10.00 11.00 12.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 30.00 Total 10 2 1 3 4 1 1 15 22 24 3 8 1 1 2 98 8.7 1.7 . 9 2.6 3.5 . 9 . 9 13.0 19.1 20.9 2.6 7.0 . 9 . 9 1.7 85.2 10.2 2.0 1.0 3.1 4.1 1.0 1.0 15.3 22.4 24.5 3.1 8.2 1.0 1.0 2.0 100.0 10.2 12.2 13.3 16.3 20.4 21.4 22.4 37.8 60.2 84.7 87.8 95.9 96.9 98.0 100.0   Missing System 17 14.8     Total 115 100.0     Frequency table and histogram for H1003Assignment-02 H1003ASSIGNMENT02   Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 8.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 Total 1 2 1 18 33 23 13 2 2 2 1 98 . 9 1.7 . 9 15.7 28.7 20.0 11.3 1.7 1.7 1.7 . 9 85.2 1.0 2.0 1.0 18.4 33.7 23.5 13.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 100.0 1.0 3.1 4.1 22.4 56.1 79.6 92.9 94.9 96.9 99.0 100.0   Missing System 17 14.8     Total 115 100.0     The normal and detrended normal Q-Q plot of H1003Assignment-02 Descriptive Statistics The descriptive statistics involves describing data by showing or summarizing the data into a meaningful means in order to determine a pattern in the data.

The following table illustrates the descriptive statistics of the data analyzed above. The following table summarizes the descriptive statistics of the exams and assignments Descriptive Statistics   N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation             H1001FINALEXAM50 98 . 00 45.00 31.7245 6.75458 H1001ASIGNMENT01 98 8.00 22.00 17.2143 1.99096 H1001ASSIGNMENT02 98 8.00 19.00 15.4592 2.31164 H1002FINALEXAM50 98 . 00 40.00 26.5000 5.91041 H1002ASSIGNMENT0130 98 4.00 22.00 17.8163 3.44125 H1002ASSIGNMENT02 98 4.00 16.00 12.4184 1.98927 H1003FINALEXAM50 98 4.00 43.00 25.9898 8.27179 H1003ASSIGNMENT01 98 10.00 30.00 18.1939 3.90785 H1003ASSIGNMENT02 98 8.00 20.00 13.5408 1.75962 Valid N (listwise) 98         Subject HI001 Exams: Out 98 students, the mean score in HI001Final Exams out of 50 marks was 31.7245. The maximum was 45 while the minimum was 0.00. The deviation from the mean score was recorded at 6.75458. Assignment 01-30: In the assignment, marked out of 30, the minimum score was 8 and the maximum is 22.

The mean score was 17.2143 and the standard deviation was 1.99096. Assignment 02-20: In the assignment, marked out of 20, the mean score was 15.4592 while the standard deviation was 2.31164. The minimum and the maximum score were 8 and 19 respectively. Subject HI002 Exams: Out 98 students, the mean score in HI002Final Exams out of 50 marks was 26.5000. The maximum was 40 while the minimum was 0.00.

The deviation from the mean score was recorded at 5.91041. Assignment 01-30: In the assignment, marked out of 30, the minimum score was 4 and the maximum is 22. The mean score was 17.8163and the standard deviation was 3.44125. Assignment 02-20: In the assignment, marked out of 20, the mean score was 12.4184while the standard deviation was 1.98927. The minimum and the maximum score were 4 and 16. Subject HI003 Exams: Out 98 students, the mean score in HI003Final Exams out of 50 marks was 25.9898. The maximum was 43 while the minimum was 4.00. The deviation from the mean score was recorded at 8.27179. Assignment 01-30: In the assignment, marked out of 30, the minimum score was 10 and the maximum being 30.

The mean score was 18.1939 and the standard deviation was 3.90785. Assignment 02-20: In the assignment, marked out of 20, the mean score was 13.5408 while the standard deviation was 1.75962. The minimum and the maximum score were 8 and 20. Correlations Correlation is a statistical measure that determines the level of variations between two or more variables. If two variables are positively correlated then the correlation value indicates the extent to which the two variables decrease or increase together.

A negative correlation indicates an opposite movement whereby as one variable increase the other decrease. In this study, correlation coefficients are used to compare the relationships between the exams and assignments 1 and 2. The following tables of correlations illustrate the extent of fluctuations of variables.         Correlation between HI001FinalExam and HI002FinalExam Correlations   H1001FINALEXAM50 H1002FINALEXAM50 Spearman's rho H1001FINALEXAM50 Correlation Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) N 1.000 . 98 . 067 . 515 98   H1002FINALEXAM50 Correlation Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) . 067 . 515 1.000 .     N 98 98 The H1001FinalExams and H1002FinalExamsare positively correlated. According to the table above, the correlation coefficient of HI001FinalExam and HI002FinalExam 0.067. Although they are positively correlated, the correlation is slightly weak, being below 0.5.

References

Bainbridge, W. S. 1992. Social research methods and statistics: a computer-assisted introduction. Belmont, Calif, Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Burns, R. B., & Burns, R. A. 2008. Business research methods and statistics using SPSS. Los Angeles, SAGE.

Corston, R. 1992. Research methods and statistics in the social sciences. Chester-le-Street, Casdec.

Schweigert, W. A. 1994. Research methods and statistics for psychology. Pacific Grove, Calif, Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.

Sharma, R. K. 1997. Sociological methods and techniques. New Delhi [India], Atlantic Publishers and Distributors.

Wilson, S., & Maclean, R. 2011. Research methods and data analysis for psychology. New York, McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

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