The paper "Steel Manufacture - Sources and Properties of Raw Material Feedstocks" is a perfect example of a finance and accounting article. Steel is one of the metals that have always been high on demand from day one, with its usage varying through a wide spectrum as in industries, constructions, containers to household necessities. The steel rates are one of the commodities that has been growing up constantly over decades and is expected to grow so. The largest manufacture of steel till the turn of 21st century (2000) was US and EU but now it is comfortably surpassed by Asian countries as China and India closely following the heel. Raw materials needed in steelmaking: The steel that is discussed here is the main steel produced, carbon steel which further with the addition of alloy sir attuned to other forms.
The major raw materials required are iron ore, and manganese ore as fuel and reducing agent- coal, coke and petrol fuels as fluxes- Limestone and Dolomite and Quartz as refractories- Silica, Magnesite and Alumina The main ore is iron oxide, a compound of iron and oxygen. The hematite -abundantly available, limonite- the brown ore, taconite, and magnetite- black ore are principal ore.
To make quality steel, ore with an iron content of at least 50% is to be processed in the furnace. This is economically taken care of by many industries by removing rocks and major impurities before shipping, by subjecting it to a process of beneficiation, which includes the process of crushing, screening, tumbling, floatation, and magnetic separation. This increases the iron content by 60% that is then made as pellets and shipped. The next raw materials as coke (the residue left after heating coal in the absence of air, which has up to 90% carbon) and limestone (CaCO3) or burnt lime (CaO).
These are added to the blast furnace at intervals, where the limestone or burnt lime is used as a fluxing material that forms a slag on top of the liquid metal. On average it could be said that, to produce one ton of steel, two tons of ore, one ton of coke, and a half-ton of limestone are required. Apart from it other minor elements as Carbon (0.5 to 1.25%), Manganese (0.03% to1.0%), small quantity of Phosphorus (0.04%), and Silica (0.5- 0.3%) are needed.
The coal is needed as energy for the steel making that is spent for 60% of energy needs. Also, scrap steel is used in the process. There are variety and grades of steel made by varying the number of raw materials used.
3. USGS (US Geological Survey): Mineral Commodity Summaries 2005 (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/).
4. Robert Dicianni ,2003 , Steel Update: The Rising Cost of Steel ,Structural change in the steel industry will change pricing patterns for moldmakers in the next several years. http://www.moldmakingtechnology.com/articles/080402.html