The paper "Global Economic Strategies to Mega Sports Event " is a great example of a sports and recreation coursework. Sport is simultaneously a cultural and economic activity. It is also a set of highly organized and structured global phenomena. Our interest lies in the role and nature of the global sports organization. The GSOs exist to control sports at the world level and take many shapes and forms. In essence, they are the supreme governing body of a sport or some other aspect of sport such as doping. Some are massive in their impacts and influence while others are much less so, even though their claim to global control may be legitimate.
Whatever their size within their own circuit they all have some claim to be the ringmasters of sport. More than any other part of the world economy, with the exception of global financial markets, sport is intermediated by its own set of institutions and organizations. These were designed to formalize and further the interests of individual sports, events, and culture rather than to be commercial enterprises. They have remained non-profit organizations in a stridently commercial activity.
(Marshall, 1992, 307-24) So when examined from the perspective of the mass of non-profit global organizations with cultural or humanitarian objectives, a major difference becomes apparent: the GSOs are organizations with the capacity to control, contest or commercially generate hundreds of billions of dollars. Nevertheless, despite the fact that the revenues, either under the immediate control or indirectly under the influence of the GSOs are enormous, these organizations are largely ignored as a group. Perhaps this is precise because of a fundamental element in their political economy, their non-profit status.
Many of the GSOs have tremendous power to generate revenues, but their ambiguous 'ownership' of a sport combined with their non-profit status makes the distribution of any surplus difficult. This is part of what makes them singularly interesting. The GSOs are the outcome of processes that precede the formation of the global sports economy. They are one of that economy's main actors but their importance stems from the size of that economy. Both the sports economy and the GSOs rely on the prior formalization of sport.
Without that normalization, the sport could not be treated as a commodity. While some previous civilizations, China, Greece, and Rome had highly organized, commercialized sports before the eighteenth-century sport can be regarded as limited in extent, and almost entirely localized, non-professional and informal. So while the global sports economy is now a useful category, it is meaningless in an examination of eighteenth-century sport. After all, it was not until the mid-to-late eighteenth century that many sports began to be formalized and standardized in ways that would eventually allow sports commodities to be identified. To become a commodity, a sport not only had to be producible, but also to be reproducible within a standard format, yet maintain uniqueness for each game, match, or event.
We argue that what is less recognized is that a pool of players, and teams in some cases, had to be created that could play each other on a more than casual basis. This is standardized and trained labor as an input to commodity production. This requires that games be played under identical rules and is equally true for both amateur and professional sport.
Equally important for standards of play, but less recognized, is that the required training for players (often from childhood) be performed under identical and stable rules.
Anheier, H., Glasius, M. and Kaldor, M. (eds) (2001) Global Civil Society 2001, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 160-66
Arthur, W. (1996) Increasing Returns and the New World of Business, Harvard Business Review, 74(4): 100-9.
Ashworth, G. and Goodall, B. (1988) Tourist Images: Marketing Considerations, in B. Goodall and G. Ashworth (eds) Marketing in the Tourism Industry: The Promotion of Destination Regions, London: Belhaven, pp. 213-38.
Baade, R. A. (1996), ‘Professional Sports as a Catalyst for Metropolitan Economic
Baade, R. A., and Matheson, D. A. (2004), ‘The Quest for the Cup: Assessing the
Baade, R. A., Baumann, R. and Matheson, D. A. (2005), ‘Selling the Big Game:
Brewer, J. (2001) This Sporting Life, Corporate Governance International, 4(3): 2-3.
Business Journal, 14 June.
Choosing match locations by applying a modified cost–benefit model,’ in Barros, C.
Coates, D. and Humphreys, B. (2000) The Stadium Gambit and Local Economic Development, Regulation, 23(2): 15-20.
Deady, T. (1994), ‘World Cup Gives Boost to Local Economy, But Hoteliers Fall
Deloitte (2006), Annual Review of Football Finance, Sport Business Group, Deloitte,
Development,’ Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 18, No. 1.
Economic Impact of the World Cup,’ Regional Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4, June.
Economics of North American and European Sports, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton,
Estimating the economic impact of mega-events through taxable sales,’ College of the
Finer, J. (2002), ‘The Grand Illusion,’ Far Eastern Economic Review, 7 March.
Foster, K. (1986) Sporting Autonomy and the Law in L. Allison (ed.) The Politics of Sport, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 48-65.
Giulianotti, R. (1999) Football: A Sociology of the Global Game, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 86-107.
Goldblatt, D. (2003), Football Yearbook 2003–4. The Complete Guide to the World Game, London: Dorling Kindersley.
Gouguet, J. J. (2002), ‘Economic Impact of Sporting Events: What has to be
Hiller, H. (1998) Assessing the Impact of Mega-events: A Linkage Model, Current Issues in Tourism, 1(1): 47-57.
Hinch, T. and Higham, J. (2001) Sport Tourism: A Framework for Research, International Journal of Tourism Research, 3: 45-58.
Holy Cross, Department of Economics Faculty Research Series, Paper No. 05–10,
Keynes, J. M. (1936), The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, London:
MA: Edward Elgar. Macmillan.
Marshall, D. and Cook, G. (1992) The Corporate (Sports) Sponsor, International Journal of Advertising, 11: 307-24. Manchester.
McCarville, R. and Copeland, R. (1994) Understanding Sport Sponsorship Through Exchange Theory, Journal of Sport Management, 8: 102-14.
Meenaghan, T. (1991) The Role of Sponsorship in the Marketing Mix, International Journal of Advertising, 10(1): 35-47.
Mishan, E. J. (1988), Cost–Benefit Analysis, 4th edn., London and New York:
Miyazaki, A. and Morgan, A. (2001) Assessing Market Value of Event Sponsoring: Corporate Olympic Sponsorships, Journal of Advertising Research, 41, January-February, 9-15.
Nodell, B. (1993), ‘Tourism Industry to be Real Winner at World Cup,’ Los Angeles
Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Porter, P. (1999), ‘Mega-Sports Events as Municipal Investments: A critique of impact analysis,’ in Fizel, J. L., Gustafson, E. and Hadley, L., eds., Sports Economics: Current
Rahmann, B., and Kurscheidt, M. (2002), ‘The Soccer World Cup 2006 in Germany:
Research, New York: Praeger Press.
Ritchie, J. and Smith, B. (1991) The Impact of a Mega-event on Host Region Awareness: A Longitudinal Study, Journal of Travel Research, 30 (Summer): 3-10.
Rosen, S. and Sanderson, A. (2001) Labour Markets in Professional Sports, The Economic Journal, Special Issue - The Economics of Sport, February, 111, F47-F68. Routledge.
Szymanski, S. (2002), ‘The Economic Impact of the World Cup,’ World Economics,
The Comparative Economics of North American and European Sports, Cheltenham, UK;
Vol. 3, No. 1, January–March.