Topic 11 First is the owner and senior manager who must ensure that the enterprise earns profit as the owner has risked investing his money expecting a reasonable return. Second, the customer should be served in such a way that he feels like a guest at the hotel or restaurant. Third, the employees as only if they are well treated, they can keep the guest happy and make him a returning customer. 2 Most important are the employees. If they are looked after in the right way, they make customers satisfied.
The returning customers ensure adequate return on investment to the owner. 3 Scientific management believes in standardization of work, constant overseeing of the workers, ensuring obedience and giving incentives for achieving fair day’s work. Standardization of work involves the work being simplified by removal of wasteful repetitions and unnecessary movement and division of labour. This rendered workers as mere tools as they felt wok as monotonous having lost their craftsman’s style of working. Although out put increased by this scientific method, workers could not tolerate monotony and slavery and this resulted in their sabotaging the machinery and work.
Human relations theory advocates the treatment of workers in a more honourable way than as a production tool. It aims to motivate workers to achieve their individual desires and also make them participate in management. If workers are motivated by encouraging them to make initiatives wherever possible, they are made to feel important and part of the management. Humanistic management combines the positive aspects of scientific, humanistic and participative management systems. Topic 21In situational theory, leaders adopt their functioning depending on workers’ degree of performance in a particular situation, whereas transactional leaders motivate their workers and achieve their performance by clarifying their role and task required of them.
Autocratic style unlike in the above two, true to its name imposes conforming to commands. 2 Culture, race, religion, language, ethinicty, geneder, sexual orientation and physical abilities coming into play make the work environment diverse. Recognizing this diversity is important in order to ensure equality and human dignity in the workplace. This is unavoidable since population around world is becoming multicultural in any given country thus rendering cross-cultural point of view important. 3 It is shrewd to take diversity as an opportunity instead of as a challenge.
This diversity contributes to knowledge in diverse fields and experience thus gained helps management solve problems. Cross-cultural interaction skills are developed consciously by building diverse teams with diverse knowledge and experiences and make the employees better equipped. Topic 31 Two or more people are brought together with complementary skills and abilities to achieve a common purpose of achieving goals for which team members are made mutually accountable. Top performers are identified and made team captains since people would like to be associated with individuals who excel in their jobs.
2. A team in order to perform should have a purpose. Team members must be sufficiently empowered. There should be informal relationships amongst the members and communication amongst them must flow vertically and horizontally. It should also flow from the top to bottom levels. Seamless communication is the secret of the team’s success. There should be flexibility so as to enable team members adapt to situations. The team members should understand the goal of the team and remain committed to them besides to the mission and vision of the enterprise.
The team members must be mature enough to understand what they are expected of and must be amenable to continual improvement to create synergy. There must be mutual respect among the members and they should listen to each other and must feel free to express their opinions. The differences of opinions should be rather handled in a professional manner than in a hawkish manner.