Essays on Types of Employees, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors of Employee Motivation Thesis

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper “ Types of Employees, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors of Employee Motivation” is an inspiring example of the thesis on human resources. Even before the word “ motivation” was coined, business people were already aware of the importance of swaying or influencing workers to accomplish their assigned tasks for the organization. In the absence of systematic techniques of motivating workers, the early businessmen clung to the carrot-and-stick method (Andrews, 2004, p. 341). To entice workers to work harder, economic “ carrots” were regularly offered. To physically, socially, and financially punish the workers, “ sticks” were brandished on them (Govindarajan & Natarajan, 2005, p.

102). With the progress of the discipline of psychology, business people were afforded an opportunity to look for new ways to motivate people (Statt, 2000). What began was the departure by the management think tanks from the thinking that employees were just cog of the machine and input into the production of goods and services. Although Sigmund Freud and his input on motivation arising from his psychoanalysis school were initially rejected by the business people of his age (McCalley, 2002, p.

166), Elton Mayo was able to show the inadequacy and ineffectiveness of the pure carrot-and-stick method of motivating employees (Mackay, 2007, p. 41). Mayo and the Hawthorne Studies that he spearheaded gave birth to the human relations approach to management, which taught the managers to primarily focus on the needs and motivation of employees (Bedeian, 1993). 2.1.1Defining MotivationObservably, there is an absence of consensus on the definition of motivation among scholars and researchers. This is evidenced by the many definitions and theories that have been advanced on the subject (Cuirrie, 2007, p.

2-3). But, just to have a point of departure in defining motivation, its etymology may be mentioned. Motivation is derivative of the Latin word movare (Rainey, 2009; Gunkel, 2005, p. 21) – i.e. , to move, to disturb, to set in motion, to dislodge, or to change (Collins Latin Dictionary, 1996). Consistent to this, Webster’ s II New College Dictionary (2001) defines motivation as “ an impulse … emotion, desire or psychological need, acting as incitement to action … causing or able to cause motion” .



Accel-Team (2011). Human relations movement. Retrieved on 10 June, 2011, from

Adams, J.S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press.

African Society for Quality in Health Care (ASQHC) (2009). Elements of TQM. Retrieved 4 June, 2011, from

Agus, A. Krishnan, S.K., Latifah, S., & Kadir, S.A. (2000). The structural impact of total quality management on financial performance relative to competitors through customer satisfaction: a study of Malaysian manufacturing companies. Total Quality Management, 11 (4/5/6), 814-826.

Allen, J. (2011). Nursing home administration, 6th ed. Danvers (MA): Springer Publishing Company.

Amabile, T. M. (1998). How to Kill Creativity. Harvard Business Review, 76(5), 76-87.

American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) (2009). Impact of communication on motivation. Retrieved on 23 May, 2011, from

Andrews, S. (2004). Human resource management: A textbook for the hospitality industry. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Antonioni, D. (1999). What motivates middle managers? Retrieved on 24 May, 2011, from

Armstrong, (2002). Employee reward. Wiltshire: Cromwell Press.

Arthur, J.B. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 3 (37), 670-687.

Azanza, P. (n.d.). Beyond carrot-and-stick: TQM motivation factors in the Philippine Maritime Schools. Retrieved on 12 June 2011, from

Bartol, K.M. & Martin, D.C. (1998). Management. New York: McGraw Hill.

Bedeian, A.G. (1993). Management, 3rd Ed. New York: Dryden Press.

Benson, J. (2008). How different organizations use TQM to ensure customer satisfaction. Retrieved on 31 May, 2011, from

Besterfield, H.D., Besterfield-Michna, C., Besterfield, H.G. & Besterfield-Sacre, M. (1999). Total quality management, 2nd Ed. London: Prentice Hall.

Beswick, D. (n.d.) Management implications of the interaction between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards. Retrieved on 26 May, 2011, from

Bicheno, J. (1998). The quality 60: a guide for service and manufacturing. Buckingham: PICSIE Books.

Blackburn, R. & Rosen, B. (1993). Total quality and human resources management: lessons learned from Baldridge Award winning companies. Academy of Management Executive, 7(3), 49-66.

Boje, D.M. & Winsor, R.D. (1993). The resurrection of Taylorism: total quality management’s hidden agenda. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 6 (4), 57-70.

Boldman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (2003). Reframing organization: artistry, choice and leadership, 3rd ed. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass Press.

Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (2008). Reframing organization: artistry, choice and leadership. San Francisco (CA): John Wiley and Sons.

Boone, L.E. & Kurtz, D.L. (2010). Contemporary business. Danvers (MA): John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Boselie, P. & van der Wiele, T. (2002). Employee perceptions of HRM and TQM, and the effects on satisfaction and intention to leave. Managing Service Quality, 12 (3), 165-172.

Bowen, B. & Radhakrishna, R. (1991). Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: a constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (2), 16-22.

Brocka, B. & Brocka, M.S. (1992). Quality management: implementing the best ideas of the masters. Homewood (IL): Irwin.

Buford, J., Bedeian, A. & Lindner J. (1995). Management in extension, 3rd Ed. Columbus (Ohio): Ohio State University Extension.

Burgess, P. (1971). Reasons for adult participation in group educational activities. Adult Education, 22 (1), 3-29. (2008). Douglas McGregor’s motivational theory X theory Y. Retrieved on 9 June 2011, from

Carson, C.M. (2005). A historical view of Douglas McGregor’s Theory Y. Management Decision, 43 (3), 450-460.

Chang, C.M., Chen, K.C. & Flanagan, K. (n.d.). A study of the participative motivation, satisfaction and loyalty of the members at the Taekwondo Training Hall in Taipei County. The Sport Journal. Retrieved on 23 May, 2011, from

Chin, K.S., Pun, K.F., Xu, Y. & Chan, J.S. (2002). An AHP based study of critical factors for TQM implementation in Shanghai manufacturing industries. Technovation, 22, 707-715.

Cizmeli, C. (2007). Maslow on management. Retrieved on 10 June, 2011, from

Chopra, S. (2002). Motivation in management. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. (2011). Motivation theories: individual needs. Retrieved on 9 June, 2011, from,articleld-8908.html

Collins Latin Dictionary (1996)

Connor, T. (2009). Quality management system: process of implementation. Retrieved on 9 June 2011, from

Corbett, L. & Rastrick, K. (2000). Quality performance and organizational culture. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 17 (1), 14-26.

Coyle-Shapiro, J. (1997). The impact of a TQM intervention on teamwork: a longitudinal assessment. Team Performance Management, 3 (3), 150-161.

Cuirrin, M.O. (2007). An empirical analysis of the interrelationship between motivation and stress in the computing industry. Waterford (Ireland): Waterford Institute of Technology.

Dale, B.G. (1997). Characteristics of organizations not committed to total quality management. Journal of Engineering Manufacturing, 211-377.

_________ (1999). Managing quality, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.

Dean, J.W. & Bowen, D.E. (1994). Management theory and total quality: improving research and practice through theory development. Academy of Management Review, 19 (3), 392-418.

Deeb, S. & Iung, B. (2008). ISO9000 based advanced quality approach for continuous improvement of manufacturing processes. Retrieved on 6 June 2011, from

Delery, J.E. & Doty, D.H. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 4 (39), 802-835.

Dieleman, M., Toonen, J., Toure, H. & Martineau, T. (2006). The match between motivation and performance management of health sector workers in Mali. Hum Resour Health, 4 (2) doi: 10.1186/1478-4491-4-2

Erto, P. & Vanacore, A. (2002). A probabilistic approach to measure hotel service quality. Total Quality Management, 13 (2), 165-174.

Fisher, J.G. (2005). How to run successful incentives schemes, 3rd ed. London: Kogan Page.

Ford, L. (2005). Transform your workplace: 52 proven strategies to motivate, energize, and kick productivity up to the next level. New York: McGraw Hill.

Fountain, J.E. (2001). Paradoxes of public sector customer service. Governance, 14 (1), 55-74.

Frederick, C.M. & Ryan, R.M. (1995). Self-determination in sport: a review using cognitive evaluation theory. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 5-23.

Franken, R. (1994). Human motivation. Pacific Grove (CA): Brooks/Cole.

Frey, B. & Osterloh, M. (2002). Successful management by motivation: balancing intrinsic and extrinsic incentives. Zurich: Swiss Association for Organization and Management.

Goetsch, D. & Davis, S. (1994). Introduction to total quality: quality, productivity, competitiveness, 2nd ed. London: MacMillan.

Gordon, J. (2010). Soup: a recipe to nourish your team and culture. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Gotzamani, K.D. & Tsiotras, G.D. (2001). An empirical study of the ISO 9000 standards’ contributions toward total quality management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21 (10), 13-28.

Govindarajan, M. & Natarajan, S. (2005). Principles of management. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Limited.

Grant, R.M., Shani, R. & Krishnan, R. (1994). TQM’s challenge to management theory and practice. Sloan Management Review, Winter, 25-35.

Greenberg, J., Baron, R.A. (1997). Behavior in organizations: understanding and managing the human side of work. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Guest, D.E. (1997). Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8 (3-6), 263-276.

Gunkel, M. (2005). Country comparable incentive design. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitats-Verlag.

Haasen, A. & Shea, G. (2003). New corporate cultures that motivate. Westport (CT): Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

Harding, P. (2011). Quality management systems. Retrieved on 9 June 2011, from

Heller, R. (2005). Total quality management and motivation. Retrieved on 11 June, 2011, from

Hendricks, K.B. & Singhal, V.R. (2001). The long-run stock price performance of firms with effective TQM programs. Management Science, 3 (47), 359-368.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Higgins, J.M. (1994). The management challenge, 2nd Ed. New York: Macmillan.

Hill, S. (1991). Why quality circles failed but total quality management might succeed. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 29 (4), 541-568.

Hill, S. & Wilkinson, A. (1995). In search of TQM. Employee Relations, 17 (3), 8-25.

Hindle, T. (2008). Guide to management ideas and gurus. London: Profile Books Ltd.

Hollander, S.R. (2007). Employee incentives: creating loyalty and motivation. Retrieved on 24 May 2011, from

How Ritz-Carlton applies TQM (1993). Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 34 (4).

Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: an overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved 21 May 2011, from

Ilardi, B.C., Leone, D., Kasser, T. & Ryan, R.M. (2006). Employee and supervisor ratings of motivation: main effects and discrepancies associated with job satisfaction and adjustment in a factory setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23 (21), 1789-1805.

International Development Research Center (IDRC) (n.d.). Organizational motivation. Retrieved on 24 May, 2011, from

Irvine, D. (2011). Strategic employee recognition. Retrieved on 26 May, 2011, from

Jun, K.N. & Weare, C. (2010). Institutional motivations in the adoption of innovations: the case of e-government. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory (doi: 10.1093/jopart/muq020). Retrieved 21 May 2011, from

Kanter, R.M. (1992). The future of bureaucracy and hierarchy in organizational theory: a report from the field. In P. Bourdieu & P. Coleman (eds.), Social theory for a changing society. Boulder (CO): Westview Press.

Karkoszka, T. & Honorowicz, J. (2009). Kaizen philosophy: a manner of continuous improvement of processes and products. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 35 (2), 197-203.

Kettle, K.L. & Haeubl, G. (2009). Motivation by anticipation: expecting rapid feedback enhances performance. Retrieved on 24 May 2011, from

Kleinginnna, P. & Kleinginna, A. (1981). A categorized list of motivation definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 263-291.

Kluger, A.N. & Van-Dijk, D. (2004). Feedback sign effect on motivation: is it moderated by regulatory focus? Applied Psychology, 53 (1), 113-135.

Kohn, A. (1993). Challenging behaviorist dogma: myths about money and motivation. Compensation & Benefits Review, March/April. Retrieved on 23 May 2011, from

Kreitner, R. (1995). Management, 6th Ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Landy, F. & Conte, J. (2010). Work in the 21st century: an introduction to industrial and organizational psychology 3rd ed. Danvers (MA): Wiley Publishers.

Latt, K.A. (n.d.). Motivating people on the way towards organizational performance. Retrieved 24 May 2011, from

Lawler, E.E. (1994). Total quality management and employee involvement: are they compatible? Academy of Management Executive, 8 (1), 68-76.

Lindner, J.R. (1998). Understanding employee motivation. Journal of Extension, 36 (3), 1-8.

MacDuffie, J.P. (1995). Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance: organizational logic and flexible production systems in the world auto industry. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 2 (48), 197-221.

Mackay, A. (2007). Motivation, ability and confidence building in people. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.

Madura, J. (2007). Introduction to business, 4th ed. Mason (OH): Thomson South-Western.

Maluleke, Y.L. (2008). Evaluation of an implemented quality management system (QMS) at one of the South African government departments: employee perceptions of the effects of the QMS intervention. Master’s thesis, Rhodes University.

Martin, D. & Joomis, K. (2007). Building teachers: a constructivist approach to introducing education. Belmont (CA): Wadsworth.

Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.

McAdam, R. & Henderson, J. (2004). Influencing the future of TQM: internal and external driving factors. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 21 91), 51-71.

McCalley, R. (2002). Patterns of management power. Westport (CT): Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

McClelland, D. (1987). Human motivation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of the enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Milakovich, M.E. (1990). Total quality management in the public sector. National Productivity Review, 10 (2), 195-215.

Miller, K. (2009). Organizational communication: approaches and processes. Boston (MA): Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Minkler, L. (2004). Shirking and motivations in firms: survey evidence on worker attitudes. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 22 (6), 863-884.

Morgan, C. & Murgatroyd, S. (1997). Total quality management in the public sector. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Morley, M., Moore, S., Hearty, N. & Gunnigle, P. (1998). Principles of organizational behavior: an Irish text. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, Ltd.

Mueller, C. (2010). Employee motivation and incentive at Apple: do incentives really help to motivate employees? Norderstedt: Grin Verlag.

Murphy, J. & Roopchand, N. (2003). Intrinsic motivation and self-esteem in traditional and mature students at a post-1992 university in the north-east of England. Educational Studies, 29 (2/3), 244-259.

Nanda, V. (2005). Quality management system handbook for product development companies. New York: CRC Press.

Neto, A. (n.d.). The motivation in total quality management. Retrieved on 12 June, 2011, from

Ng, V. (2009). What motivates the employees. Retrieved on May 26, 2011, from

Oakland, J. (1993). Total quality management: the route to improving performance. London: Butterworth Heinemann.

Paauwe, J. & Richardson, R. (1997). Introduction to special issue on HRM and performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 3 (8), 260.

Pavlic, I. & Raguz, I.V. (2009). The importance of total quality management in hospitality: the case of Croatia. Retrieved on 6 June, 2011, from

Perry, N. and T. Amabile (1999). The key to perpetual innovation? Let creativity be its own reward. [An interview with Teresa Amabile.]. New Business.

Peters, J. & Boshier, R. (1976). Adult needs, interests and motives. In C. Klevins (ed.), Materials and methods in continuing education, p. 197-212. New York: Klevens.

Pfeffer, J. (1994). Competitive advantage through people. Boston (MA): Harvard Business School Press.

Pfeifer, T. (2002). Quality management: strategies, methods, techniques. Cincinnati (OH): HanserGardner Publications, Inc.

Pinder, C. (1998). Work behavior and organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River ((NJ): Prentice Hall.

Pongracic, I. (2009). Employees and entrepreneurship: coordination and spontaneity in non-hierarchical business organizations. Northhampton (MA): Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Pool, S.W. (2000). The learning organization: motivating employees by integrating TQM philosophy in a supportive organizational culture. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21 (8), 373-378.

Pophal, L. (2010). Motivating today’s employees. Business Management. Retrieved on 26 May 2011, from

Powell, T.C. (1995). Total quality management as competitive advantage: a review and empirical study. Strategic Management Journal, 16 (1), 15-38.

Pratheepkanth, P. (2011). Reward system and its impact on employee motivation in Commercial Bank of Sri Lanka Plc, in Jaffna District. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 11 (4), 84-92.

Pride, W., Hugh, R. & Kapoor, J. (2010). Business, 10th Ed. Mason (OH): South-Western Cengage Learning.

Pritchard, R., Weiss, L., Goode, A. & Jensen, L. (1990). Measuring organizational productivity with proMES. National Productivity Review, 9 (3), 257-271.

Psychogios, A.G. & Priporas, C.V. (2007). Understanding total quality management in context: qualitative research on manager’s awareness of TQM aspects in the Greek service industry. The Qualitative Report, 12 (1), 40-66.

Rainey, H. (2009). Understanding and managing public organizations. San Francisco (CA): John Wiley and Sons.

Rampersad, H. (2001). 75 painful questions about your customer satisfaction. The TQM Magazine, 13 (5), 341-347.

Reh, J. (2011). How to give orders. Retrieved on 28 May 2011, from

Ross, J.E. (1994). Total quality management: text, cases and readings, 2nd ed. London: Kogan Page.

Ryan, R.M. & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Saint-Guillain, E. (2011). Trust, responsibilities and motivation. Retrieved on 24 May 2011, from

Sapru, R.K. (2006). Administrative theories and management thoughts. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd.

Sashkin, M. & Kisher, K.J. (1993). Total quality management. San Francisco: Berrett-Kochler.

Saunders, I.W., & Graham, M.A. (1992). Total quality management in the hospital industry. Total Quality Management, 3 (3).

Sebastianelli, R. & Tamimi, N. (2003). Understanding the obstacles to TQM success. Retrieved 13 June, 2011, from

Shah, J. & Gardner, W. (2008). Handbook of motivation science. New York: Guilford Press.

Simon, H.A. (1991). Organizations and markets. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5 (2), 25-44.

Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Free Press.

Slater, R.H. (1991). Integrated process management: a quality model. Quality Progress, April, 69-73.

Smith, G.P. (1994). Motivation in W. Tracey (ed.), Human resources management and development handbook, 2nd ed.

Statt, D. (2000). Using psychology in management training: The psychological foundations of management skills. London: Routledge.

Steen, T. & Vander Veen, S. (2004). McGregor’s theory X and theory Y: implications for Christian business education. Retrieved on 11 June, 2011, from

Talaq, J. & Ahmed, P.K. (2003). The role and importance of motivation in TQM success. International Journal of Management and Decision Making, 4 (2/3), 272-286.

Tang, T. & Baldwiin, L. (1991). The effects of self-esteem, task label and performance feedback on task liking and intrinsic motivation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 131 (4), 567-572.

Tasler, N. (2009). The kinds of employees you want to hire. Retrieved 21 May 2011, from

Tietjen, M.A. & Myers, R.M. (1998). Motivation and job satisfaction. Management Decision, 36 (4), 226-231.

Tummala, V. & Tang, C. (1996). Strategic quality management, Malcolm Baldrige and European Quality Awards and ISO 9000 certification: core concepts and comparative analysis. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 13 (4), 8-38.

Vouzas, F. (1997). Middle management and quality improvement: evidence from five countries. In L.Y-Frederic & G.J. Burgoyone (eds.), Middle managers in Europe, p. 155-172. London (UK): Routledge.

Vroom, V. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.

Wagner, H. (1999). The psychobiology of motivation. New York: Routledge.

Waldman, D.A. (1994). The contributions of total quality management to a theory of work performance. Academy of Management Review, 19 (3), 510-536.

Wallace, M.J. & Szilagyi, A.D. (1982). Managing behaviors in organization. Glenview: Scott/Foresman.

Walker, G. (2001). IT problem management. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice-Hall.

Webster’s II New College Dictionary (2001). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Weiner, B. (1992). Human motivation: metaphors, theories and research. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Whipple, R. (2009). Culture and motivation go hand-in-hand. Retrieved on 24 May, 2011, from

Whitley, P. (2002). Motivation. Oxford: Capstone Publishing.

Why loyalty pays. Retrieved on 25 May, 2011, from

Wijsman, L. (2010). The relation between self-efficacy and feedback perception and between feedback and intrinsic motivation. Retrieved on 23 May 2011, from,%20LA-3216195.pdf

Wiley, C. (1997). What motivates employees according to over 40 years of motivation surveys. International Journal of Manpower, 18 (3), 263-280.

Wilson, G. (n.d.). The effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation. Retrieved on 27 May, 2011, from

Yeo, R. (2003). The tangibles and intangibles of organizational performance. Team Performance Management, 9 (7/8), 199-204.

Zairi, M. (2000). Managing customer satisfaction: a best practice perspective. The TQM Magazine, 12 (6), 389-394.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us